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Peimitivb Chbistianity Revived in the Faith and Practice 
OF the people called Quakers: written in testimony to the 
present dispensation of God through them to the world; that 
prejudices may be removed, the simple informed, the well- 
inclined encouraged, and, the truth and its innocent friends 
rightly represented. By William Penn. To which is prefixed a 
memoir of Penn, by James M. Brown, of Virginia. Philadelphia : 
published by Miller and Burlock, George street, above Eleventh. 
Price, fifty cents. 

" The name of William Penn is fondly and widely cherished in 
the State called by his name. He was one of the noblest of men, 
and his words and acts are immortal. We are glad of the repub- 
lication of this admirable work, and to see the memoir of Penn 
on the printed page. The example and lessons taught by him will 
do good where they are known, and become the subject of reflec- 
tion. Mr. Brown has placed the State of Penn and others under 
special obligation for securing the publication of this work. It 
contains 150 pages, and is neatly bound." — Christian Chronicle. 

" The above-named work, by William Penn, has always been 
acknowledged by the Society of Friends as a clear and candid, 
though brief, exposition of its belief upon the great and cardinal 
doctrines of Christianity. It is a sufficient answer to the cavils 
that have been renewedly put forth by some in the present day, 
who appear anxious to have it believed that our early Friends were 
not orthodox in relation to the divinity of Jesus Christ and the 
atonement made by him for the sins of the whole world. It also 
fully sets forth and demonstrates what the author lays down *■ as a 
main fundamental in religion,' and the 'ancient, first, and standing 
testimony' of Friends, — ^viz. : * That God through Christ hath placed 
a principle in every man, to inform him of his duty, and to enable 
him to do it ; and that those who live up to this principle are the 
people of God, and that those who live in disobedience to it are 
not God's people, whatever name they may have or profession 
they may make of religion.' 

**We are glad to find that a member of another religious deno- 
mination than our own has become so much interested in this little 
work as to be at the labour and expense of publishing an edition 
of it ; and we hope he may succeed in spreading it widely among 
persons of all professions. He has prefaced it with a short bio- 
graphical notice of William Penn, including the principal parts of 
Foster's refutation of the calumnies of Macaulay. 

** The whole work contains 150 pages, and is sold for fifty cents 
a copy." — The Friend. 

"We have received a copy of this work from the author of the 
memoir, who announces himself a member of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church. 


"Having met with the treatise of Wil! ^^ ^ _, ^^^ .^^ 
rested in its contents, and concluded to r^^^"^^^;^^;^ ^^ jf\ ^e 
form. He appears to have formed a corr^ *^^ ^ T^^/t ^^ of /} U 
of this distinguished man, both as a Chris^^^^^Ogr^q^ j^^e c 
in the memoir prefixed to the work has in^^^ ^Ce(f t^^sla 
ample to the rising generation. ^ ^^et* ^^ «a 

" » Primitive Christianity Revived* was wr^^^^ /'. by^ ^, 
soon after the death of his eldest son, and ^^^^ /t ^^ienn^^^^ 
that the principles of Friends are the same ^^y/jJ^^Se ^5^^? to 
tive Church, and that the life and power of J*^^ ^®^, y^l *^o P. 
in faith and obeyed without reserve, will pr47<3f ^e ^^ -oezj ^^^^ 
of holiness as in the morning of the gospel d/»J^ ' *'^j^^^e fr 
UUigencer. ^^u:nd^' 


a copy of a new edition of this short but valuable ti'eatise^t'^^®^^®' 
is prefixed a brief Memoir of the Author, by James JVj. ^^ ^hicl 
Virginia ; also, Dixon's refutation of the * Macaulay Charires^?' ^^ 

"J. M. Brown is a member of the Methodist Episcopal (^* 
and, in stating the reasons for his interest in the reprint of a w^ t 
of William Perm's more than one hundred and fifty years after*^ 
first publication, says : — *^ 

** * Read the work attentively, and consider well the character of 
the man in connection with the condition of the world at that time 
— ^its moral darkness, the prevalence of dishonesty, priestcraft! 
superstition, intolerance, bigotry, and church pride, — in short, every 
thmg hateful to a man like William Penn, who was too wise' to bo 
cheated by the vanities, empty professions, or promises of this 
fleeting world ; and then judge whether it be not high time to recur 
to first lessons and first principles, and whether there be a man 
woman, or child who would not be not only gratified but much 

profited by a careful and proper reading of this little volume.' " 

Friendif Review. 

** A most interesting volume lies upon our table, from James M 
Brown, of Virginia, the * Primitive Christianity' of William Penn • 
a treatise from the founder of Pennsylvania, on the essential prin- 
ciples of Christianity as held by the Quakers. The Christian 
community at large will thank Mr. Brown for reviving this work 
for, whatever may be our dissent from a few of its most 'Quakerish' 
notions, it is a noble ' testimony' for evangelical orthodoxy in 
general. It is seasonable also in its appearance. Quakerism is 
disintegrating throughout this country ; Parkerism is taking its 
place. William Penn is summoned to remonstrate against this 
declension. The book should be universally circulated among the 
descendants of his people, and it can hardly be less useful among 
others. It is introduced by a good biographical sketch, and is 
embellished by a portrait of Penn, and an engravmg of the famous 
•Treaty Tree.' " — CkrisUan Advocate and Journal. 

^ ■ 

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Co fol^ic^ IS fttii^ti a Ptmotr of ^nn, 



TMi reprint gixet wuch of the Scripture which is rtf erred to in the originaL 



Also, fiir sale at T. E. Chapman's; John W. Moore; Hats & Zell; Uriah Hunt ft 
Son; Smith, Engubh & Co.; Henrt Longstreth; Friends' Book 

Store, I^ila. Armstrong & Bsrrt, Bcdt. . ' 


•w^.^. , 

CairA*^ /ie 

Entered acooTding to Act of Congress, in the year 1867, by 


In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Western 

District of YirgiDia. 


TO THE public: 

JSut more e^ecially to the followers of William Penny 
George Ihx, and Robert Barclay. 

^Ip it be made a question why a member of the M. E. 
Church should interest himself so much as to reprint 
a work of William Penn's more than one hundred 
and fifty years after its first publication, and a short 
memoir of the man, let the answer be — William Penn, 
like the great Washington, was a benefactor to his 
race. No country or sect can claim him exclusively ; 
his acts were too general in their character and no- 
ble in their object to be confined or appropriated to 
any clime or to any persuasion ; hence my privilege. 
Read the work attentively, and consider well the cha- 
racter of the man, in connection with the condition 
of the world at that time, — its moral darkness, the 
prevalency of dishonesty, priestcraft, superstition, 
intolerance, bigotry, church pride, and arrogance ; in 
short, every thing hateful to a m^n like William Penn, 
who was too wise to be cheated by the vanities, empty 
professions, or promises, of this fleeting world ; and 
then judge whether it be not high time to recur to 
first lessons and first principles, and whether there 
be a man, woman, or child, who would not only be 
gratified, but much profited, by a careful and proper 
reading of this little volume ; thence my object and 

The Author. 


Thb uitlior gratefiilly aoknowledges the many favours he ^§m 
leoeiTed in aiding him to get np this book, particularly that of 
Jxo. Fbost, LL.D., for the plate of the likeness of William Penn, 
and that of Messrs. H. Gowpbethwait k Co., for the loan of their 
plate of William Pemi's Treaty irith the Indians at Philadelphia. 

Of the Tarions r eprese ntations of that erer-memorable erent^ 
none that he has seen so folly sets it forth according to his puusj 
M it is in the third revised edition of Mitchell's Primary Geognk- 
phy, published hj Messrs. H. Cowperthwait k Co., of Philadelphia^ 

And for the free nse whioh the aafhor has made of the works of 
others who have written of William Penn, he now tenders his pzo- 
ftnmd aeknowledgments. 

And last, bat not least, to Edwabd W. Millib, Esq., of the 
tan of Miller k Bnrlock, bookbinders, &c., George Street, Phila- 
delphia^ for the great attention he bestowed in procnring ma- 
terials, &c. 

To appreciate fUly sabh fkvonrs, they mtist be reoeired by one 
remote and nnaoqaainted in cities, like 

9hb AutBOB. 



So rapid lias been tlie sale of this little book; tbat many 
of tbe original subscribers have not been supplied out of 
the first edition ; hence the haste with which the second 
has been issued. 

^Let all those who revere the character, sentiments, and 
memory of William Penn be encouraged by this circum- 
stance: for, '^ although dead, he yet speaketh;'' yea, his 
name carries with it its own peculiar wjliience. 

By a little effort he can be introduced to tens of thou- 
sands who have as yet but heard his name ; and to many 
more in other lands, who have never heard it. 

Who can contemplate the wonderful result of science in 
discovering methods to dispel diurnal darkness by the aid 
of gas, without feeling and expressing admiration of the 
superior intelligence, industry, and perseverance of those 
whose inventive genius effected an achievement so wonder- 
fdl ? But William Penn calls our especial attention to a light 
of far transcendent magnitude and importance, — even that 
light which lighteth everi/ man that cometh into the world, 
and which alone emanates from God, and to which all will 
do well to take heed. 

I have been particularly requested to explain certain 
dates found on pages 30, 31^ 32, 33, &c., which I do with 

Formerly there were various kind of years in use ; but, 
for the object now in view, it is unnecessary to allude to 
more than three of them. 

The civil year is the legal account of time which every 

government establishes to be used within its own dominions; 

and, until 1752, in all Protestant countries the different 

kinds of years began at different periods. One commenced 

1* 5 


on the first day of January, — ^the Circumcision ; and another 
began on the first day of March ; a third on the twenty-fifth 
day of March, — ^the Annunciation, or hady-day. 

The General Assembly of Pennsylvania, on the seventh 
day of December, 1682, enacted a law making the year to 
begin on the first day of March, and the months to be num- 
bered accordingly : hence, March was " 1st mo.,'' August 
was "6th mo.," and February was " 12th mo.," and so on.* 

We often meet with 7ber for September, and 8ber for 
October, and 9ber for November, and lOber for December. 
While on this subject, a few more lines will serve to explain 
an interesting feature connected with the foregoing. 

The time intervening between the first day of January 
and the twenty-fifth day of March was the commencement 
or opening of one kind of year, while it was the closing or 
termination of others ) hence, we frequently meet with dates 
given thus: "22d llmo. 1685-6;" "12th mo. 15th, 
1668-9;" and "February 23 d, 1693-4;" and "January 
28th, 164{;" and, "At a session of the General Court in 
Hartford on the 24th of March, 16f J;" because those days 
were in more than one kind of year. 

This led to great confusion, and, by an Act of Parliament 
passed in 1751, the necessity for double dating ceased on 
the last day of December of that year. For by said act 
the next day — ^viz. : January the first — should be reckoned, 
taken, deemed, and accounted to be the first day of 
the year of our Lord 1752, and so on, from time to time, 
the first day of January in every year, which should happen 
in time to come, should be reckoned, taken, deemed, and 
accounted to be the first day of the year.f 

Hence, since the last day of December, 1751, "1st 
month" means January ; and " 2nd mo." means February; 
and "3rd mo." is March. « 

* Colonial Records of Pennsylvania, vol. i. p. 1. 
t Pennsylvania Archives, 1748-1756, p 68. 





" He views 
The dismal sitnation waste and wild ; 
A dangeon horrible on all sides round, 
As one great furnace flamed; yet from those flames 
No light) but rather darkness visible 
Served only to discover sights of wo, 
Begions of sorrow, doleful shades, 
Where peace and rest can never dwell/' — Paradise Lost. 

Our earth; all beautiful as it is, and admirably adapted 
to contribute to the wants of the human family and render 
them happy, has been by them converted into something 
yery much resembling a slaughter-house. 

From the earliest account of man, we learn that among 
his first acts was that of murder, most foul and malicious. 
Almost every page of his history repeats the sad story of his 
murderous deeds; and but for the light of the glorious gos- 
pel of Jesus Christ, darkness would reign supreme. 

At intervals the light has shone brightly, the clouds of 
ignorance and wickedness appeared to be yielding to the in- 
fluence of the gospel, and hope has again and again sprung 
up anew in the bosom of the faithful ; but alas ! alas ! dark- 
ness returned with tenfold horrors. 

The Reforniation seemed to promise much to the cause of 



Christ. The powers of darkness seemed to be shaken to 
their centre, and a flood of light was poured npon the earth 
that appeared sufficient to dispel the gloom and make it all 
glorious within ; but man, the poor recipient, proved him- 
self again unworthy, and in a few years perverted the 
blessings that Heaven, in mercy, had richly bestowed upon 
him; and, instead of seeking for others, by the operation 
and exercise of faith, hope, and charity, we find him en- 
deavouring to merit heaven by good works, and in his blind- 
ness and bigotry burning all those who had independence 
enough to think and act for themselves. 

What an astounding disclosure it would be to the world 
could I but give the number and extent of that multitude 
of men, women, and children who have suffered death for 
opinion's sake at the hands of the ruthless executioner of 
religious intolerance ! 

If it be asked which was the guilty party, let the answer 
be forever remembered. It was the party in power. And 
the constant warfare waged for ascendency has kept the 
earth stained with blood. Any one who will read carefully 
the history of Europe for two centuries beginning with 
the year 1500, will, I am sure, conclude that darkness then 
covered the earth as the waters cover the great deep. 
Within this period of time, -to wit, on Monday, October the 
14th, 1644, was bom in London, the great champion of 
religious liberty, the American lawgiver, and founder of 
Pennsylvania, William Penn. He was the son of Sir Wil- 
liam Penn, a man of good estate and high reputation, who 
in the time of the Commonwealth served in some of the 
highest maritime offices, and whose tomb bears the follow- 
ing inscription: 

To the Just Memory of Sir William Penn, Knight, and sometimes 
General, Born at Bristol, Anno 1621. Son of Captain Giles Penn, seve- 
ral years Consul for the English in the Mediterranean ; of the Penns 
of Pennslodge in the County of Wilts, and those Penns of Penn in 


the County of Backs, and by his mother from the Gilberts, in the 
County of Somerset, originally from Yorkshire, addicted from his youth 
to Maritime affairs: He was made Captain at the years of Twenty 
One, Rear-Admiral of Ireland at Twenty Three, Vice-Admiral of Ire- 
land at Twenty Five, Admiral to the Streights at Twenty Nine, Vice- 
Admiral of England at Thirty One, and General in the first Dutch War 
at Thirty Two. Whence returning. Anno 1655, He was a Parliament- 
Man for the Town of Weymouth ; 1660 made Commissioner of the Ad- 
miralty and Navy, Governor of the Town and Fort of Kingsail ; Vice- 
Admiral of Munster, and a Member of that Provincial Council, and 
Anno 1664 was chosen Great Captain Commander' under his Royal 
Highness, in that Signal and most evidently Successful Fight against the 
Dutch Fleet. 

Thus he took leave of the Sea, his old Element, but continued still his 
other Employs, till 1669, at which time, through Bodily Infirmities con- 
tracted by the Care and Fatigue of Public Affairs, he withdrew, pre- 
pared, and made for his end ; and with a gentle and even Gale in much 
Peace arrived, and anchored in his last and best Port at Wanstead in 
the County of Essex, the 16th of September, 1670, being then but Forty 
Nine years and four months old. 

To His Name and Memory, His Surviving Lady hath Erected This 

After the Restoration lie wa^ knighted by King Charles 
the Second, being a peculiar favourite of the then Duke of 
York, James, a brother to Charles. 

Paternal care, and a promising prospect of his son's ad- 
yancement, induced the father to give him a liberal educa- 
tion; and the youth, of an excellent genius, made such 
early -improvements in literature, that about the fifteenth 
year of his age he was entered a student at Christ's Church 
College in Oxford. 

His ardent desire after pure and spiritual religion (of 
which he had before received some taste, or relish, through 
the ministry of one Thomas Loe, a Quaker) now began to 
show itself; for, with certain other students of that univer- 
sity, he withdrew from the national way of worship, and 
held private meetings for the exercise of religion, where 
they both preached and prayed among themselves. This 
gave great offence to the heads of the college, and when but 


sixteen years of age he was fined for nonconformity ; for 
persisting in tlie practice^ he was soon after expelled. 

At this time the true character of the youth was fully 
developed. He was endowed with many good properties, 
not the least of which were the power of great discernment ; 
a firmness of purpose, with a moral courage that knew no 
fear ; a perfect disregard for the opinion of the world, when 
that opinion was at variance with his sense of duty, or stood 
between him and his God ; a sense of justice capable of 
making the nicest discriminations, accompanied by a moral 
honesty that stopped at no sacrifice; a perseverance that 
never wearied, and a spirit of tolerance and charity that was 
truly godlike. 


''Yet him God the Most High vouchsafes 
To call by visions from his father's house, 
His kindred and false gods, into a land 
Which he will show him, and from him will raise 
A mighty nation, and upon him shower 
His benediction so, that in his seed 
All nations shall be blest. He straight obeys. 
Not knowing to what land, yet firm believes." — Paradise Lo9t, 

At this time commenced the conflict between the father 
and the son. The fond parent, who had paved the road for 
his son to honour, wealth, and fame, now for the first time 
saw his hopes blighted, and in the anguish of his spirit 
resorted not only to harsh words, but to blows, in order to 
change his son's course; and finding both ineffectual, he 
turned him out of doors. The youth bore it patiently until 
affection triumphed over anger, when be was sent to France 
with some persons of quality, with the view of having his 


attention diverted from the subject of religion. He con- 
tinued there until the object was very nearly acqomplished, 
and when he returned his father was much pleased to find 
the experiment had proved so successful. A knowledge of 
the French language and French politeness had been ac- 
quired, together with a desire to practise them. 

Now it was that he was tempted of the devil to desert 
his religious principles. To his youthful mind were pre- 
sented the honours and pleasures of the world, the favour 
and love of that father who had done so much for him 
already, (and was anxious to do so much more,) and the 
comforts of his home, where he enjoyed all he could desire, 
with a prospect (provided he did not offend his father) of 
inheriting his whole estate. To all this must be added the 
favour of his king and the smiles and caresses of the court. 
Several years were spent in this dubious condition, and 
especial care was taken by his father to prevent a return to 
his former companions. He entered him as a student of 
law at Lincoln's Inn, had him employed in the king's ser- 
vice, presented liim to great personages, and caused him to 
visit them. In the Dutch war he belonged to his father's 
staff for a short time, yet witnessed real service. Shortly 
after this the plague ravaged London, and William Penn 
changed his residence. 

The solemn scenes he had witnessed in the metropolis no 
doubt revived his former religious sentiments, and more 
than ever convinced him of the folly of seeking happiness 
in any thing except purity of heart, with which he always 
associated a life of self-denial. The admiral was not long 
in discovering a change in his son's demeanour, and deter- 
mined to repeat his former experiment; and, owning a fine 
estate in Ireland which required immediate attention, pro- 
posed to his son to go and take charge of it, giving him 
letters of introduction to the first officers of the govern- 
ment. He arrived in 1665 among his father's friends, by 



whom he was received with marked respect. He asso- 
ciated on the most familiar and friendly terms with the 
Dake of Ormonde and his family. An insurrection among 
the soldiers at Carrickfergus afforded Penn an opportunity 
to display his military talents. He served as a volunteer, 
and so distinguished himself as to receive general applause 
from his superior officers, who proposed that he should join 
the army, and take command of a company of foot. To this 
he assented, and sought his father's consent, which, not 
being obtained, the idea was abandoned, but not before he 
had his likeness painted in military costume, which is said 
to be the truest one ever taken of him. 

The duke presented him with a highly responsible office 
connected with the fleet at Kinsale, the duties of which he 
discharged to the entire satisfaction of his employer. The 
interest of the Irish estate required his services in London, 
when his superior capacity for business was fully developed. 
His father, fearing the religious influence of his former ac- 
quaintances, soon hurried him off to Ireland. Having busi- 
ness at Cork, he there met and associated with Quakers, and 
at their meeting again heard Thomas Loe, who began his 
discourse with these ever-memorable words, " There is a 
faith that overcomes the world, and there is a faith that is 
overcome by the world." By this discourse Sir Admiral 
Penn's apparently well-laid plans were entirely defeated, 
and William Peun, Jr., thorottghli/ convinced, subsequent- 
ly became a regular attendant at their meetings, brook- 
ing violent persecution. In 1667 he and many others were 
apprehended at a Quaker meeting in Cork, and taken before 
the mayor, who, observing that his dress was not that of a 
Quaker, would have set him at liberty upon bond for his 
good behaviour. Penn refused to accept this, and, with 
eighteen others, was committed to prison ^ 

His openly espousing the cause of the Quakers soon pro- 
cured him the reproachful name, which was accompanied 


witli scoff and derision ; lie was a by- word of soorn and con- 
tempt. The ^.ther, being informed of the course his son 
had taken, recalled him, and on his return was fully satis- 
fied of the truthfulness of the accounts he had received, not 
by his dress but by his address. 

Every parent must sympathize with William Penn the 
elder. Language cannot describe the anguish he expe- 
rienced on this occasion. I shall not attempt it. '^ My 
pen/' says a former biographer, " is diffident of its abilities 
to describe that most pathetic and moving contest which was 
betwixt his father and him. His father, actuated by 
natural love, principally aiming at hi^ son's temporal ho- 
nour; he, guided by a divine impulse, having chiefly in 
view his own eternal welfare. His father, grieved to see the 
well-accomplished son of his hopes, now ripe for worldly 
promotion, voluntarily turn his back upon it; he^ no less 
afflicted to think that a compliance with his earthly father's 
pleasure was inconsistent with an obedience to his heavenly 
one. His £a,ther, pressing his conformity to the customs 
and fashions of the times; he, modestly craving leave to 
refrain from what hurt his conscience. His father, earnestly 
entreating him, and almost on his knees beseeching him, to 
yield to his desire ; he, of a loving, tender disposition, in an 
extreme agony of spirit to behold his father's concern and 
trouble. His father, threatening to disinherit him; he, 
humbly submitting to his father's will therein. His father, 
turning his back on him in anger ; he, lifting up his heart 
to God for strength to support him in that time of trouble.'' 

His &ther, to compromise matters somewhat, proposed to 
excuse him from complying with the fashionable manners 
and customs of the day, provided he would take off his hat 
in the presence of the king, the duke, and himself. He, 
desiring time to consider the question, withdrew, and hum- 
bled himself before G-od, with fasting and supplication. He 
was thus strengthened in his resolution, and, returning to 


hui fiiiher, humbly ngnified that he oonld not oomply witL 
his desire. His fiither, finding himeelf otterlj disappointed 
of his hopesi oonld no longer endure him in his sight, and 
the second time turned him out of doors. 

William Penn> in relating his religious ezperienee at a 
meeting on the Continent in 1677, said, '< Here I b^^n to 
let them know how and when the Lord first appeared unto 
me, which was about the twelfth year of my age, anno 1656. 
How at times, between that and the fifteenth year, the 
Lord yisited me, and of the divine impressions he gaye me. 
of myself of my persecutions at Oxford, and how the Lord 
austained me in the midst of that hellish darkness and de- 
bauchery; of my being banished the college; the bitter 
usage I underwent when I returned to my fiither — ^whip- 
ping, beating, and turning me out of doors in 1662 ; of the 
Lord's dealing with me in France, and in the time of the 
great plague. in London; in fine, the deep sense he gave 
me of the vanity of this world, of the irrdtgiottsness of the 
religions of it. Then of my mournful and bitter cries to 
him that he would show me his own way of life and salva- 
tion, and my resolutions to follow him, whatever reproaches 
or sufferings should attend me, and that with great reve- 
rence and brokenness of spirit. How after all this the 
glory of the world overtook me, and I was even ready to 
give up myself unto it, seeing as yet 'no such thing as 
the primitive spirit and church on the earth, and being 
ready to faint concerning my hope of the restitution of all 

'^ It was at this time that the Lord visited me with a cer- 
tain sound and testimony of his eternal word through one 
of those the world calls Quakers, namely, Thomas Loe. I 
related to them the bitter mockings and scomings that fell 
upon me, the displeasure of my parents, the invectiveness 
and cruelty of the priests, the strangeness of all my com- 
panions. What a sign and wonder they made of me ; but. 


above all, that great cross of resisting and watching against 
mine own inward vain affections and thoughts.'' 

I feel that I would be remiss were I to fail to make an- 
other extract from his writings touching upon this immediate f 
subject; a lesson so well calculated to encourage all those 
who are in the way of righteousness to persevere therein at 
all hazards, and at the same time to admonish parents and 
guardians against putting obstacles in the way of tenderly 
visited minds. He says, ''My own father, after thirty 
years' employment with good success in divers places of 
eminent trust and honour in his own. country, upon serious 
reflection, not long before his death, ^ke to me in this 
manner : ' Son William, I am weary of .the world ; I would 
not live over my days again if I could command them with 
a wish ; for the snares of life are greater than the fears of 
death. This troubles me, that I have offended a gracious 
God that has followed me to this day. Oh, have a care of 
sin ! that is the sting both of life and death. Three things 
I commend to you: 1. Let nothing in this world tempt 
you to wrong your conscience ; I charge you do nothing 
against your conscience ; so will you keep peace at home, 
which will be a feast to you in a day of trouble. 2. What- 
ever you design to do, lay it justly and time it seasonably, 
for that gives security and despatch. Lastly : Be not trou- 
bled at disappointments ; for if they may be recovered, do 
it ; if they can't, trouble is vain. If you could not have 
helped it, be content; there is often peace and profit in sub- 
mitting to Providence; for afflictions make wise. If you 
could have helped it, let not your trouble exceed instruction 
for another time. These rules will carry you with firmness 
and comfort through this inconstant world.' At another 
time he inveighed against the profaneness and impiety of 
the age; often crying out with an earnestness of spirit, 
' Wo to thee, England ! God will judge thee, England ! 
Plagues are at thy door, England I' He much bewailed 



that diyera men in power, and many of the nobility and 
gentry of the kingdom were grown so dissolute and profane, 
often sayipg, ^ God has forsaken us, we are infatuated, we 
will shut our eyes, we will not see our true interests and 
happiness; we shall be destroyed!' Apprehending the 
consequences of the growing looseness of the age to be our 
ruin, and that the methods most fit to serve the kingdom, 
with true credit at home and abroad, were too much neg- 
lected ; the trouble of which did not a little help to feed 
Ua distemper, which drew him daily nearer to his end; and 
as he believed it, so less concerned or disordered I never 
saw him at any time ; of which I took good notice. Wea- 
ried to live, as well as near to die, he took his leave of us 
and of me with this expression, and a most composed couur 
tenance : ' Son William, if you and your friends keep to 
your plain way of preaching, and keep to your plain way of 
living, you will make an end of the priests to the end of the 
world. Bury me by mother. Live all in love. Shun all 
manner of evil. And I pray God to bless you all -, and he 
will bless you.' " 

He died on Friday, 16th September, 1670. I let the 
reader make his own comment. 

Truly man sees not as God sees ; and would it be too 
much were I to say that God raised up William Penn for a 
special purpose, as he did Moses ? There is certainly a 
very striking similarity in many important events of their 
lives. Moses was brought up at court; the same may be 
said of William Penn. Moses could look forward to the 
time when he could enjoy all of the worldly pleasures this 
life affords; so could William Penn. The popularity and 
wealth of Sir William Penn, and the great obligations 
that rested on Charles II., as well as his inclination to pro- 
mote the son, rendered it plain to the weakest capacity that 
worldly glory was in the grasp of William Penn. 

God saw proper to call the attention of Moses to the 


burning bash, yet permitted it not to be consumed. This 
seems to be the starting-point in his religions life, and one^ 
no doubt, to which he often recurred when his faith or pa- 
tience wavered. 

God kindled in the bosom of William Penn a fire that 
was to him as remarkable and as certain a beacon in after 
life as was the burning bush to Moses, with this difference, 
however, in favour of William Penn, his fire never ceased to 
bum upon the altar of his heart. 

How beautifully does St. Paul describe Moses in his 
Epistle to the Hebrews, chap. xi. 24-27 ! — "By faith Moses, 
when he was come to years, refused to be called the son of 
Pharaoh's daughter; choosing rather to suffer affiction with 
the people of God, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a 
season ; esteeming the reproach of Christ greater riches than 
the treasures of Egypt : for he had respect unto the recom- 
pense of the reward. By faith he forsook Egypt, not fear- 
ing the wrath of the king: for he endured, as seeing Him 
who is invisible." 

I will also record here what William Penn said of Moses, 
after speaking of Abraham and Job ; he said, " Moses is the 
next great example in sacred story for remarkable self-denial, 
before the times of Christ's ^appearance in the flesh. He 
had been saved, when an infant, by an extraordinary provi- 
dence ; and it seems, by what follows, for an extraordinary 
service. Pharaoh's daughter (whose compassion was the 
means of his preservation when the king decreed the slaugh- 
ter of the Hebrew males) took him for her son, and gave him 
the education of her father's court. His own graceful pre- 
sence and extraordinary abilities, joined with her love for 
him and interest in her father to promote him, must have 
rendered him, if not capable of succession, at least of being 
chief minister of affairs under that wealthy and powerful 
prince. For Egypt was then, what Athens and Home were 
afbeT; the most famous for learning, arts, and glory. 


^' But Moses, ordained for other work, and guided by a 
better star, a higher principle, no sooner came to years of 
discretion, than the impiety of Egypt and the oppression of 
his brethren there, grew a burden too heavy for him to 
bear. And though so wise and good a man could not want 
those generous and grateful resentments that became the 
kindness of the king's daughter to him, yet he had also seen 
that God that was invisible, and did not dare to live in the 
ease and plenty of Pharaoh's house whilst his poor brethren 
were required to make brick without straw. 

'^ Thus the fear of the Almighty taking deep hold of bis 
heart, he nobly refused to be called the son of Pharaoh* b 
daughter, and chose rather a life of affliction with the 
most despised and opprest Israelites, and to be the compa- 
nions of their temptations and jeopardies, than to enjoy the 
pleasures of sin for a season: esteeming the reproach of 
Christ (which he suffered for making that unworldly choice) 
greater riches than all the treasures of that kingdom. Nor 
was he so foolish as they thought him. He had reason on 
his side ; for it is said he had an eye to the recompense of 
the reward : he did but refuse a lesser benefit for a greater. 
In this his wisdom transcended that of the Egyptians, for 
they made the present world their choice, (as uncertain as 
the weather,) and so lost that which has no end. 

" Moses looked deeper, and weighed the enjoyments of 
this life in the scales of eternity, and found they made no 
weight there. He governed himself, not by the immediate 
possession, but the nature and duration of the reward. His 
faith corrected his affections, and taught him to sacrifice the 
pleasures of self to the hope he had of a future more excel- 
lent recompense." 

Permit me to pursue the parallel. By faith William 
Penn, when he was come to years, refused to enjoy the 
pleasures of the court of Charles the Second; choosing 
rather to suffer affliction with the people of God, than to 


enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season ; esteeming the re- 
proach of Christ greater riches than all the honours of 
England: for he had respect ^nto the recompense of the 
reward. By faith he forsook England, not fearing the 
wrath of the king : for he endured^ as seeing him who is 

What a remarkable man^ and what a remarkable life ! 
With every opportunity for the enjoyment of all that world- 
lings could desire, he, when yet a youth, renounces them 
all, and incurs the absolute displeasure of his king and 
Neither, and was turned out of doors ; incurs the scoffs and 
sneers of every worldly-minded man at home and abroad ; 
associates with the low and humble and despised followers 
of Jesus Christ; suffering persecution and imprisonment 

In the fulness of time, however, a door of deliverance is 
opened for him and his oppressed brethren. The second 
land of promise is in view, but Penn is required to do more 
than Moses, yet his faith fails not. He hesitates not to em- 
bark a very large portion of his estate (some say $200,000) 
in a wilderness beypnd an ocean three thousand miles in 
width, inhabited by a few European adventurers and hordes 
of savages. He called it the holy experiment. 

I will here insert a letter which was written by him at 

"Chester, Pennsylvania, on the 5th of the 12th month^ 

(February,) 1682, which will explain my views more fully. 

My Old Friend : — 

I could speak largely of God's dealings with me in get- 
ting this thing. What an inward exercise of faith and pa- 
tience it cost me in passing. The travail was mine, as well 
as the debt and costs, through the envy of many, both pro- 
fessors, false friends, and profane. My God hath given it 
me in the face of the world, and it is to hold it in true 
judgment; as a reward of my sufferings ; and that is seen 

SS A mm MuoiE 

heMi whfttafw aome dwpisen mAj saj or think.* Hit 
plMO God bai gitoa me, and I never Mt judgment ftrtfae 
power I kepty but troable ^or what I parted wiA. It is 
more tliaii a worldly title or patent that liaih eaUed me in 
this plaoe. 

Keep thj plaoe : I am in minOi and liave served the God 
of the whole earth ainoe I have been in it; nor am I sitting 
down in a greatness that I have denied. I am^ daj and 
night| spending my life^ mj time, my money, and am not 
sixpenoe enriched by this greatness; costs in getting; set^ 
ilingy transportation, and maintenance now in a pnblie maa^ 
nor at my own charge duly considered; to say aotihuig of 
my haiard and the distance I am ftom a conalderable estatOi 
and, which is more, my dear wife and poor children. Well ; 
the Lord is a God of righteous judgment. Had I sooght 
graatness I had stayed at home, where the difforence between 
what I am here and was ofiered and could have been iherp^ 
in power and wealth, is as wide as the places are. No^ I 
came fxa the Lord's sake, and therefore have I stood to thw 
day, well, and diligent, and sucoessful, Memed be hUpoweri 
Nor sh|Jl I trouble myself to tell. thee what I am to the peo- 
ple of this plaoe, in travails, watchings, spendings, and my 
servants every way, freely, (not like a selfish man,) I have 
many witnesses. 

To conclude, it is now in friends' hands. Through my 
travail, £uth, and patience, it came. If friends here keep 
to God, and in the justice, mercy, equity and fear of the 
Lord, their enemies will be their footstool; if not, their 
heirs, and my heirs too, will lose all, and desolation will fol- 
low; but, blessed be the Lord, we are well, and live in the 
dear love of God, and the fellowship of his tender, heavenly 
Spirit ; and our faith is for ourselves and one another, that 
the Lord will be with us a King and a Counsellor forever. 

Thy ancient though grieved friend, 

William Penn. 


I will here give an extract from his writings, to show 
what sustained him in his trials and tribulations. 

" Wherefore, my dear friends, be not you discomfited ; 
for there is no new thing happened unto you; 'tis the 
ancient path of the righteous. For thy sake, says David, 
have I borne reproach; I am become a stranger to my 
brethren, and an alien to my mother's children. When I 
wept, and chastened my soul with fasting, that was to^my 
reproach. I made sackcloth also my garment, and I became 
a proverb to them. They that sit in the gate speak against 
me ; and I was the song of the drunkard. Save me, God, 
for the waters are come in unto my soul ; and the water- 
floods are ready to swallow me up. They persecute him 
whom thou hast smitten ; and they talk to the grief of those 
whom thou hast wounded. 

<< Do you not know this, dear friends ? are not your tears 
become a reproach, your fasts a Wonder, your paleness a de- 
rision, your plainness a proverb, and your serious and 
retired conversation a byword? Yea, when the Lord hath 
wounded, have not they also grieved ? And when the Lord 
hath smitten you, have not they mocked ? But this was 
David's joy. The Lord is my Shepherd, I shall not want ; 
he restoreth my soul ; he leadeth me in the path of right- 
eousness for his name's sake ; he maketh me to lie down in 
green pastures ; he leadeth me beside the still waters. Yea, 
though I walk through the Yalley of the Shadow of Death, 
I will fear no evil ; for thou art with me, thy rod and thy 
staff comfort me. 

" Who was the comforter and preserver of Shadrach, Me- 
shach, and Abednego, that refused to obey the king's com- 
mand against the commandment of God ? They would not 
bow to his image ; but rather chose the fiery furnace than 
to commit idolatry, or bow to another thing than to the 
living God. Did not we cast three men into the midst of 
the fire ? said Nebuchadnezzar ; lo, I see four men loose. 


walking in the midst of the fire, and they have no hurt 
And the form of the fourth is like the Son of God. 

^' Oh ! my friends, the fire obeyeth him, as well as the 
winds and seas. All power is given to the Son of God, 
who is given to you for your salvation. Well, Shadraoh^ 
Meshach, and Abednego the king calleth out of the fire, 
and they have no harm, though the mighty men that cast 
them into the fiery furnace were consumed. The God of 
Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego is by the king highly 
preferred. Here is the end of faithfulness^ here is the 
blessing of perseverance. God will bring honour to his name, 
through the patience and integrity of his people. 

<' And it was this Son of God that preserved Daniel in the 
lion's den ; it was his voice, that David said, divideth the 
flames of fire; he rideth upon the winds, he sitteth upon 
the floods. The voice of the Lord is powerful; the voice 
of the Lord is full of majesty. They that trust in him shall 
never be confounded. Blessed are they whose God is the 
Lord : for he is a present help in the needful time of trou- 
ble. The angel of the Lord encampeth round about them 
that fear him, and he delivereth them. Oh ! taste and see 
that the Lord is good. Blessed is the man that trusteth in 
him. Oh ! fear the Lord, for there is no want to them that 
fear him. The young lions shall lack, and the old lions 
suflFer hunger, but they that seek the Lord shall not want 
for any good thing. Many are the afflictions of the right- 
eous, but the Lord delivereth them out of all ; for the Lord 
redeemeth the souls of his servants, and none of them that 
trust in him shall be made desolate. For which cause, my 
dear friends, cast away every weight, and every burden, and 
the sin that doth so easily beset you. Neither look at the 
enemies* strength, nor at your own weakness ; but look unto 
Jesus, the blessed Author of your convincement and faith : 
the mighty one, on whom God hath laid help for all those 
that believe in his name, receive his testimony, and live in 


his doctrine ; who said to his dear followers of old, Be of 
good cheer, I have overcome the world. Fear not, little 
flock; it is your Father's good pleasure to give you the 
kingdom ; and they that endure to the end shall be saved. 
I will not leave you comfortless, said he ; I will come to you ; 
he that is with you shall be in you. 

** This was the hope of their glory, the foundation of their 
building, which standeth sure. And though sorrow cometh 
over night, yet joy shall come in the morning. Ye shall 
weep and lament, said Jesus, but the world shall rejoice, 
and ye shall be sorrowful, but your sorrow shall be turned 
into joy, and their rejoicing into howling. And, lo ! I am 
with you to the end of the world. 

" Be ye, therefore, encouraged in the holy way of the Lord ; 
wait diligently for his daily manifestations unto your souls, 
that you may be strengthened in your inward man, with 
might and power to do the will of God on earth as it is 
done in heaven. Oh ! watch that you enter not into temp- 
tation ; yea, watch unto prayer that you enter not into temp- 
tation, and that you fail not by the temptation. 

"Christ said to Peter, canst not thou watch one hour? 
Every one hath an hour of temptation to go through ; and 
this is the hour that every one is to watch. Jesus, the 
Captain of our salvation, was under great temptations ; he 
was sad unto death ; he did sweat drops of blood, but he 
watched, he prayed, he groaned ; yea, he cried with strong 
cries ; but through suffering overcame ; and remember how 
in the wilderness he was tempted, but the angels of the 
Lord ministered to him. So they that follow him in the 
way of the tribulations and patience of his kingdom, God's 
angels shall minister unto them all ; yea, he will keep them 
in the hour of temptation ; he will carry their heads above 
the waters and deliver them from the devouring: floods. 

" Wherefore, finally, my friends, I say unto you in the 
name of the Lord, Be of good cheer ! Look to Jesus, and 


fear ]iol.inaii| whoee breaUi ia in his npatiili. Biii l9,||| 
lianfc fiir ihe tmih on earth. Lore .not jour lives nn^.^ 
deaUii and yon ahall lecdve a czown of life and gtorjy wkkt|i 
the Gtod of the fethen, the Ood of the prophetay ^. <3ai 
of the apoaUesi and the God of the martjxS|. the Ine .ogabt 
fesBors of Jeras; yea, the God and Father of Cfor L09A 
Jeans Chriat ahall give nnto all thoae that keep the.pnra 
teatimony of his Son in their hearts and patiently and fiutllff 
folly endure to the end. 

. '< Now to Him who 18 able to keep yon from fidliQg» and^tO 
pieaent yon fiftoltleaB before the preisenoe of hia glory, withi 
exceeding joy ; to the only wise Ood, onrSavionr, be gjlory anA 
majeaty, dominion and power, both now and ever. Amen.:. 

** I am yenr friend that ainoerely lovea yon, and eameatly 
travails for your redemption, WiIiLIAM Pbh." 


'< AU clepnv'd, 
Jnstiee and temp'ranoe, trath and faith forgo^ 
One man except, the only son of light 
In a dark age, against example, good ; 
Againat allnnmenty onatom, and the world 
Offended ; fearless of reproaeh and soom. 
Or violence, he of Ihelr wicked ways 
Shall them admonish, and before them set 
The paths of righteousness, how much more safoy 
And ftill of peaoe, denouncing wrath to eome 
On their impenitence ; and shall return 

Of them derided, bat of God obsery'd." 

« « « « « 

To teach thee Uiat God attributes to place 
Ko sanctity, if none be thither brought 
By men who there frequent or therein dwell. 
And now what further shall ensue, behold.'' — Paradise LoiU 

The history of the transaction in regard to the purchase 
of Pennsylvania; as recorded in an early <' Life of William 


Penn/' is as follows: — *'King Charles the Second, in con- 
sideration of the services of Sir William Penn, and sundry 
debts due to him from the crown at the time of his decease^ by 
letters-patent, bearing date the 4th day of March, 1680-81, 
granted to William Penn and his heirs that province lying 
on the west side of the river Delaware in North America, 
formerly belonging to the Butch, and then called the New 
Netherlands." The name was now changed by the king, in 
honor of William Penn, whom, and his heirs, he made ab- 
solute proprietors and governors of it. Upon this, he pre- 
sently published an account of the province of Pennsylva- 
nia, with the king's patent, and other papers relating thereto, 
describing the country and its produce, and proposing an 
easy purchase of lands, offering 100 acres for 40 shillings, 
or 5000 acres for £100, and good tenns of settlement 
for such as might incline to transport themselves. Many 
single persons and some families out of England and Wales 
went over, and with singular industry and application hav- 
ing cleared their purchased lands, settled and soon improved 
plantations to good advantage, and began to build the city 
of Philadelphia in a commodious situation on the aforesaid 
navigable river Delaware. 

And to secure the new planters from the native Indians, 
(who in some other provinces being injuriously dealt with, 
had made reprisals to the loss of many lives,) the governor 
gave orders to treat them with all candour and humanity ; 
and appointed commissioners to confer with them about 
land, and to confirm a league of peace, by whom he also 
gent the following letter : — 


London, the 18th of the 8th month, 1681. 

My Friends : 

There is a great God and power that hath made the 
world and all things therein, to whom you and I and all 


people owe their being and well-being, and to whom yon 
and I must give an account for all that we do in the world. 
This great God hath written his law in our hearts, by which 
we are taught and commanded to love and help, and do good 
to one another and not to do .harm and mischief one unto 
another. Now this great God hath been pleased to make 
me concerned in your part of the world, and the king of the 
country where J[^ live hath given me a great province therein, 
but I desire to enjoy it with your love and consent, that we 
may always live together as neighbours and friends ; else 
what would the great God do to us? who hath made us not 
to devour and destroy one another, but to live soberly and 
kindly together in the \^orld. Now I would have you well 
observe, that I am very sensible of the unkindness and in- 
justice that hath been too much exercised towards you by 
the people of these parts of the world, who have sought 
themselves, and to make great advantages of you, rather 
than to be examples of justice and goodness unto you, which 
I hear hath been matter of trouble to you, and caused 
great grudgings and animosities, sometimes to the shedding 
of blood, which hath made the great God angry. But I 
am not such a man, as is well known in my own country. 
I have great love and regard towards you, and I desire to 
win and gain your love and friendship by a kind, just, and 
peaceable life, and the people I send are of the same mind, 
and shall in all things behave themselves accordingly^ and 
if in any thing any shall offend you or your people, you 
shall have a full and speedy satisfaction for the same by an 
equal number of just men on both sides, that by no means 
you may have just occasion of being offended against them. 
I shall shortly come to you myself, at what time we may 
more largely and freely confer and discourse of these mat- 
ters; in the mean time I have sent my commissioners to 
treat with you about land, and a firm league of peace. Let 
me desire you to be kind to them and the people, and receive 


ihese presents and tokens which I have sent you, as a testi- 
mony of my good will to yon, and my resolution to live 
justly, peaceably, and friendly with you. 

I am your loving friend, 

William Penn. 

His fnendly and pacific manner of treating the In- 
dians begat in them an extraordinary love and regard to 
him and his people, so that they have maintained a perfect 
amity with the English of Pennsylvania ever since. And 
'tis observable, that upon renewing the treaty with the pre- 
sent governor. Sir William Keith, Bar., in 1722, they men- 
tion the name of William Penn with much gratitude and 
affection, calling him a good man, and as their highest com- 
pliment to Sir William use this expression, "We esteem 
and love you as if you were William Penn himself. So 
universally doth a principle of peace, justice, and morality 
operate on the hearts even of those we call heathens.'' 

He also drew up the fundamental constitution of Penn- 
sylvania in twenty-four articles, consented to and subscribed 
by the first adventurers and freeholders of that province, as 
the ground and rule of all future government : the first 
of which articles, showing that his principle was to give as 
well as take liberty of conscience in matters of religion, we 
shall transcribe. 


In reverence to God, the Father of light and spirits, the 

author as well as object of all divine knowledge, faith, and 

worship, I do for me and mine declare and establish for the 

first fundamental of the government of this country, that 

every persou that doth or shall reside therein shall have and 

enjoy the free profession of his or her faith and exercise 

of worship toward God in such way and manner as any 

such person shall in conscience believe b most acceptable 



to Qod, And so loDg as any such person useth not this 
Christian liberty to licentiousness, or the destruction of 
others, that is to say, to speak loosely and profanely or con- 
temptuously of God, Christ, the Holy Scriptures, or reli- 
gion, or commit any moral evil or injury against others in 
their conversation, he or she shall be protected in the enjoy- 
ment of the aforesaid Christian liberty by the civil magis- 

In the next year, 1682, he published the frame of go- 
vernment of Pennsylvania, containing twenty-four articles 
somewhat varying from the aforesaid constitution, together 
with certain other laws to the number of forty, agreed on 
in England by the governor and divers freemen of the said 
province. Of which laws one was 

That all persons living in this province^ who confess and 
acknowledge the one almighty and eternal God to be the 
Creator and upholder and ruler of the world, and that hold 
themselves obliged in conscience to live peaceably and j ustly 
in civil society, shall in nowise be molested or prejudiced 
for their religious persuasion, or practice in matters of faith 
and worship ; nor shall they be compelled at any time to 
frequent or maintain any religious worship, place, or minis- 
try whatsoever. 

In the 6th month, (August,) 1682, William Penn with 
many of his friends sailed for bis province; in six weeks 
they saw the American coast. Sailing up the Delaware, the 
inhabitants, Swedes, Dutch and English received him with 
many demonstrations of joy. He landed at New Castle, 
which was principally inhabited by Dutch, and the next 
day he summoned the people to the court-house where pos- 
session of the country was legally given him. He then 
sailed for Upland, or Optland, now Chester, where he called 
an Assembly, and declared his purpose of coming among 
them, and the ends of his government, giving them assu- 
rances of a free enjoyment of liberty of conscience in things 


spiritual and of civil freedom in temporal^ and recommended 
to them to live in sobriety and peace one with another^ and 
received their thankful acknowledgments. 

Now began that remarkable event^ the Exodus of the 
Quakers, and so extensive was it that William Penn, in a 
letter to the Marquis of Halifax, written on the 9th of the 
12th month, (February,) 1683, says : " I must without 
vanity say I have led the greatest colony into America that 
ever any man did upon a private credit, and the most pros- 
perous beginnings that ever were in it are to be found 
among us/' He also added, '^ Since last summer we have 
had about sixty sail of great and small shipping/' 

The emigration was not confined to England, it extended 
to Germaoy, Ireland, Holland, and Wales, which must have 
been very gratifying to the founder, for he came, he said, 
into the charge of the province " for the Lord's sake. He 
hoped, under the Divine aid, to have raised up a people who 
should have been a praise in the earth for conduct, as well 
as for civil and religious liberty." He said, " I wanted to 
afford an asylum to the good and oppressed of every nation. 
I aimed to frame a government which might be an example. 
I desired to show men as free and happy as they could be." 

What a beautiful example he set before our Revolutionary 
fathers ! and to their everlasting credit may it be remem- 
bered that they had wisdom and goodness sufficient to act 
upon it, and did really contribute not only to make the land 
of Penn an asylum to the good and oppressed of every na- 
tion, but extended the noble cognomen over all the territory 
of the United States, and the identical idea William Penn 
expressed near two hundred years ago, is now the most glo- 
rious name our beloved country is known by throughout the 
earth, viz. : *^ The Asylum to the Good and Oppressed of 
every Nation." Will the beneficiaries have wisdom and 
goodness sufficient to perpetuate it ? 

He planned the city of Philadelphia and named it, and 


in two years it contained 2000 inhabitants. He remained 
in America about two years, in which time he succeeded in 
establishing his laws and inculcating a spirit of love and 
harmony not only among the various sects and denomina- 
tions that had arrived from Europe, but even with the In- 
dians, and all things being in a prosperous condition he 
returned, arriving in England on the 12th of the 6th 
month, (August,) 1684. 


" Many are the afflictions of the righteoof, hut the Lord deliyereth 
him out of them all." — P»alm zzxiv. 19. 

On Friday, the 6th day of the 12th month following, 
(February,) 1685, King Charles the Second died, and was 
succeeded by his brother, the Duke of York, ty the name 
of King James the Second, who being a professed papist, 
his accession to the crown filled the people with just appre- 
hensions and fears lest he should establish his own religion 
by the destruction of others; and had William Penn at that 
time fomented the general uneasiness by encouraging multi- 
tudes then upon the wing, he might, as he himself said, have 
put many thousands of people into his province and £20000 
into his pockets. His not doing it, is sufficient proof that 
it was not wealth or fame that first brought him tb America. 

Because James the Second, who was a Catholic, esteemed 
him highly, treating him with marked respect and atten- 
tion, his enemies fabricated the charge of papist against 
him, notwithstanding he had been so bold against that per- 
suasion. He, however, soon silenced them and continued 
his labours of love — preaching, travelling, and writing. 
Among his writings was a persuasive to moderation toward 


dissenting Christians, in prudence and conscience, which he 
humbly submitted to the king and his great council, in which 
he confutes the several pleas for persecution, and confirms 
his own argument for toleration by the testimony of emi- 
nent authors and the examples of flourishing kingdoms 
and states, and shows 'the dismal effects of the contrary. 
A treatise well worthy the reader's serious perusal. 

On the 14th of March, 1685-6, came forth the king's pro- 
clamation for a general pardon, and instructions being given 
to the judges of assizes in their several circuits to extend 
the benefit of it to the Quakers ; about thirteen hundred 
of that persuasion, many of whom had been imprisoned for 
years, were set at liberty. On the 4th of April, 1687, the 
king issued a declaration for liberty of conscience, suspend- 
ing the execution of all penal laws in ecclesiastical matters. 

This was followed by an address of thanks to the king 
from the annual Assembly of Friends held in London, who 
deputed William Penn and others to present it. On the 
27th of April, 1688, King James renewed his declaration 
for liberty of conscience, with an order of council for the 
reading of it in churches, against which seven bishops peti- 
tioning were committed to the Tower. On the 6th of No- 
vember, 1688, William, Prince of Orange, landed at Tor- 
bay, in Devonshire, to the great joy of the English nation. 
James the Second withdrew to France, and on the 13th of 
February, 1688-9, William and his spouse, Mary, King 
James's daughter, were proclaimed King and Queen of Eng- 
land, &c. Of this change the enemies of William Penn 
.took advantage, charging him with disaffection to the pre- 
sent government, and had him arrested on the 10th of De- 
cember, 1688. Nothing was proved against him, yet his 
strong assurances failed to convince the council that he loved 
his country and the Protestant religion above his life, and 
they obliged him to give sureties for his appearance the first 
day of the next term^ which he did^ and then was con- 


tinned on the same Becuritj to Easter term following, on 
the last day of which, nothing having been laid to his charge, 
he was cleared in open court. 

In the year 1690 he was again brought before the lords 
of the council, upon an accusation of holding correspondence 
with the late King James, and they requiring sureties for 
his appearance, he appealed to King William himself, who 
after a conference of near two hours inclined to acquit him ; 
but to please some of the council he was held upon bail for a 
while, and in Trinity term the same year again discharged. 

He was attacked a third time, and his name inserted in a 
proclamation, dated July 18th, wherein he, with divers lords 
and others, to the number of eighteen, were charged with 
adhering to the enemies of the king; but proof failing re- 
specting him, he was again cleared by order of the king's 
bench court at Westminster, on the last day of Michaelmas 
term, 1690. 

Being now at liberty, he proposed visiting Pennsylvania 
the second time, and published printed proposals for another 
settlement there. He had so far prepared for his transpor- 
tation that an order for the convoy was granted him by the 
secretary of state, when his voyage was prevented by a fresh 
accusation against him, backed by the oath of one William 
Fuller,— a WRETCH, afterward by Parliament declared a 
CHEAT and IMPOSTOR,— and a warrant was thereupon 
granted for his apprehension, which he narrowly escaped at 
his return from Gr. Fox's burial, on the 16th of January, 
1691. He prudently retired for a few years, during which 
time he applied himself to writing, and on the 30th of the 
3d month, (May,) 1691, addressed the following epistle to 
the yearly meeting in London :— 

My beloved, dear, and honoured Brethren : — 

My unchangeable love salutes you ; and though I am ab- 
sent from you, yet T feel the sweet and lowly life of your 


heavenly fellowship, hj which I am with you and a par- 
taker amongst you, whom I have loved ahove my chiefest 
joy. Receive no evil surmisings, neither suffer hard thoughts, 
through the insinuations of any, to enter your minds against 
me, your afflicted but not forsaken friend and brother. My 
enemies are yours, and in the ground mine for your sakes, 
and that God seeth in secret, and will one day reward openly. 
My privacy is not because men have sworn truly, but falsely 
against me. For wicked men have laid in wait for me, and 
false witnesses have laid to my charge things that I knew not, 
who have never sought myself, but the good of all, through 
great exercises, and have done some good, and would have 
done more, and hurt no man, but always desired that truth 
and righteousness, mercy and peace, might take place amongst 
us. Feel me near you, and lay me near you, dear and be- 
loved brethren, and leave me not; neither forsake, but wres- 
tle with Him that is able to prevail against the cruel desires 
of some, that we may yet meet in the congregations of his 
people, as in days past, to our mutual comfort. The ever- 
lasting God of his chosen in all generations be in the midst 
of you, and crown your most solemn assemblies with his 
blessed presence, that his tender, meek, lowly, and heavenly 
love and life may flow among you ; and that he would please 
to make it a seasoning and fruitful opportunity for you, that, 
edified and comforted, you may return home to his glorious 
high praise, who is worthy forever ! To whom I commit 
you, desiring to be remembered of you before him, in the 
nearest and freshest accesses, who cannot forget you in the 
nearest relation. 

Your faithful friend and brother, 

William Penn. 

By the interposition of friends, he was granted an audi* 
ence with the king and council, in the latter part of 1693, 
when he established his innocency and was acquitted. The 


sad and melancholy bereavement which now awaited him 
is thus recorded by himself : — 

" My dear wife, after eight months' illness, (though she 
never perfectly recovered her weakness the year before, 
which held her about six months,) departed this life on the 
23d of the 12th month, 1693-4, about half an hour past 
two in the afternoon, being the sixth day of the week, and 
in the fiftieth year of her age, and was sensible to the very 
last.'' Her maiden name was Gulielma Maria Springett, 
the step-daughter of Isaac Pennington, a ministering Friend. 
They had lived in the most happy manner in the holy 
estate of wedlock about twenty years. He bears ample tes- 
timony to her happy exit from time to eternity. He now 
continued to write, preach, and travel, not, however, escap- 
ing arrests and other hinderances. 

On the 6th of the 1st month, (March,) 1695-6, he 
consummated his second marriage, at Bristol, with Hannah, 
the daughter of Thomas Callowhill, with whom he Jived 
during the remainder of his life, and by whom he had four 
sons and one daughter. 

In April, 1696, his eldest son by his first wife died ; his 
name was Springett, aged twenty-one years. "This year 
he published a treatise, entitled. Primitive Christianity Re- 
vived, in the Faith and Practice of the People called Qua- 
kers. A book which rightly represented that people's prin- 
ciples, and hath been serviceable to the information of 
many." This is the book I now reprint,' with the hope 
that it may prove serviceable to the information of many 

On the 9th day of September, 1699, himself and family 
set sail for his province of Pennsylvania. They were nearly 
three months at sea; the great length of the voyage saved 
them from the danger of a contagious disease, the yellow 
fever, that reigned in the province. When they arrived it 
was over, and they were received with the universal joy of 


the inhabitants. Intending to remain in the province, he 
gave attention to all of its interests. But immediately some 
persons in England, taking advantage of his absence, endea- 
voured to undermine the proprietary governments. Kepre- 
sentations were soon made to the Parliament, and time soli- 
cited for his return to answer for himself. He was pressed 
to return forthwith ; seeing it necessary to comply, he sum- 
moned an assembly to meet at Philadelphia, to whom, on 
the 15th of September, 1701, he made a speech, setting forth 
the condition of the province, the necessity of his return to 
England, the great and abiding interest he felt in their 
welfare, tendering them his aid to secure their privileges 
and property in any and every way in his power that they 
might suggest. To which he received the following reply : 

May it please the Proprietary and Governor : — 

We have this day in our assembly read thy speech delivered 
(yesterday) in council ; and having duly considered the same, 
cannot but be under a deep sense of sorrow for thy purpose 
of so speedily leaving us, and at the same time taking notice 
of thy parental regard to us and to our posterity, the free- 
holders of this province and territories annexed, in thy lov- 
ing and kind expressions of being ready to comply with 
whatsoever expedient and provisions we shall offer for our 
safety as well in privileges as property, and what else may 
render U8 happy in a nearer union of our interests, not 
doubting the performance of what thou hast been pleased so 
lovingly to promise, do in much humility, and as a token 
of our gratitude, return unto thee the unfeigned thanks of 
this house. Subscribed by order of the House, 

Joseph Growdon, Speaker, 

The next month, October, he sailed for England, and 
arrived about the middle of December at Portsmouth and 
proceeded ta London. After his return the bill was wholly 



dropped, and never revived. Upon the death of King Wil- 
liam, which occurred on the 8 th of March, 1701-2, the 
Princess Anne of Denmark ascended the throne. She be- 
gan her reign with moderation and clemency^ maintaining 
the Act of Toleration. William Penn was in her favour, and 
often at court. He continued to preach, and write, and 
travel, until about the year 1709, when the infirmities of 
age began to visit him. 

In 1710, he, for a better atmosphere, left the vicinity of 
London, and took a handsome seat at Kuscombe, near Twy- 
ford, in Buckinghamshire, where he resided until his death. 
In 1712, he had three several fits, supposed to be apoplec- 
tic, by which his understanding and memory were so im- 
paired as to render him incapable of public action for the 
future. He continued to fail by degrees for the space of 
about six years, until, the 30th of the fifth month, (July,) 
1718, in the 74th year of his age, his soul,, prepared for a 
more glorious habitation, forsook the decayed tenement, 
which was committed to the earth on tlie 5th of the 6th 
month, at Jordan's, in Buckinghamshire, where his 
former wife and several of his family had been buried. 


William Penn, as a legislator, deserves great honour among 
mankind. He created a commonwealth which, from a few 
hundreds of indigent refugees, have in seventy years grown 
to a numerous and flourishing people. A people who from 
a wilderness have brought their territory to a state of high 
cultivation, filled it with wealthy and populous towns, and 
who, in the midst of a fierce and lawless race of men, have 
preserved themselves, with unarmed hand, by the rules of 
justice and MODERATION, better than any other have 
done by policy and arms. The way in which he did this 
deserves eternal notice. Though brought up, as it were, 
in the coi*rupt courts, of Charles the Second, who had en- 


deavoured to carry tlie kingly prerogative to as high a pitch 
of aristocracy as possible, yet, oh, glorious ! oh, all-subdu- 
ing power of RELIGION ! when he got tJiat, he thought of 
nothing but to make everybody happy. To take the lands 
from the Indians he abhorred ; he bought their lands. To 
exact and starve the poor who followed him across the ocean 
for conscience and quiet sake, he could not brook. He put 
the lands at the low rate of forty shillings a hundred acres, 
and one shilling per hundred acres yearly quit-rent. But 
what crowned all, was the noble charter of privileges by 
which he made them more free, perhaps, than any people 
on earth; and which, by securing both civil and religious 
liberty, caused the eyes of the oppressed from all parts of 
tho world to look to his country for relief. This one act 
of godlike wisdom and goodness has settled Penn's country 
in a more strong and permanent manner than the wisest 
regulations could have done on any other plan. A man 
has but to believe there is a God ; that he is the inspector 
of our actions, and the future re warder and punisher of 
good and ill, and he is not only tolerated, but, if possessed of 
talents and integrity, is on the road to a place. 

This great and good man lived to see an extensive coun- 
try rescued from the wilderness and filled with a free and 
flourishing people ; he lived to lay the foundation of a splen- 
did knd wealthy city ; he lived to see it promise every thing, 
from the situation he himself had chosen and from the en- 
couragement which he himself had given it; he lived to 
see all this, but he died in the Fleet prison ! [J. mistake.'] 

'Tis pleasing to do honour to those great men whose vir- 
tues and generosity have contributed to the peopling of the 
earth and to the freedom and happiness of mankind; who 
have preferred the interest of a remote posterity, and times 
unknown, to their own fortune and to the quiet and secu- 
rity of their own lives. Now both Britain and America 
reap just benefit from his labours and his losses ; and his pos- 


terity have a vast estate oat of the quit-rents of that very 
province whose establishment was the ruin of their prede- 
cessor's fortune. 


^'A character so extraordinary in the institutions of 
Greece, has shown itself lately in the dregs and corruption 
of modern times. A very honest legislator has formed a 
people to whom probity seems as natural as bravery to the 
Spartans. William Penn is a real Lycurgus ; and though 
the former made peace his principal aim, as the latter did 
war, yet they resemble one another in the singular way of 
living to which they reduced their people — in the ascendent 
they gained over freemen, in the prejudices they overcame^ 
and in the passions they subdued.'' 


^' After so many acts of violence and oppression, so many 
robberies and murders committed by the Europeans in the 
New World, the heart finds some consolation in pausing over 
the part which William Penn acted there. In an age when 
savage Europe put to death so many innocent people merely 
because they could not embrace the faith of their sovereigns, 
and spread over so large a part of America those horrors of 
fire and sword at which nature revolts, William Penn, like 
an angel from heaven, presented the olive-branch to those 
afflicted people, and, by acts of godlike justice, not only re- 
stored tranquillity to their ravaged quarters, but laid the 
foundation of extensive liberty and happiness. 

" He was perhaps the first who ever built one of the fair- 
est empires of the world on the sole basis of general good, 
and, by assuring universal toleration and community of 
rights, offered a happy asylum to persecuted innocence 


throughout the earth. Inhere are but few sections of the 
American continent that have not been drenched with hu- 
man blood ; and to their eternal shame it was the enlight- 
ened an^ polished Europeans who did this, and who mur- 
dered by thousands the poor harmless natives, who received 
them with hospitality ! and then to extenuate their guilt, 
they branded those as savages whom they had so barbar- 
ously slaughtered. The arrival of William Penn put a stop 
to those frightful enormities. His godlike humanity to 
these oppressed people — treating them as brothers, buying 
their lands and heaping them with favours, melted their sim- 
ple natures with gratitude and affection. Astonished to see 
a white man who was good, and abhorred injustice and blood- 
shed, they revered him as something more than man, and 
gloried in calling him * Father/ 

"Of all the Europeans who have mitigated the ills of 
life and the fury of religious persecution, William Penn 
most deserves the gratitude of posterity. His first act in 
America held up a lovely presage of the prosperity that was 
to follow. And in his unyielding efforts to shield the op- 
pressed, he looks like Moses, followed by a host of religious 
friends, whom he conducted across the wilderness of waves 
to a new Uand of promise,' flowing with the milk and 
honey of freedom, peace, and plenty. 

*' Abhorring persecution, as the direst reproach and 
scourge of mankind, he resolved effectually to bar the door 
against it. Hence that sublime charter of his, guarantee- 
ing the most perfect liberty of conscience to all the honest 
worshippers of God, no matter what their opinions and 
forms. Instantly crowds of persons, oppressed in their 
own country because of religion, embarked for the country 
of William Penn. Then shone forth that divine philoso- 
phy * Love thy neighbour as thyself,' in the blessed fruits 
resulting from it; for, while among the antichrists of Eu- 
rope, the popes and bishops, nothing was heard but cries 



and groans from the inqaisitions and dungeons; nothinj 
talked of but sales of property belonging to heretics an< 
dissenters ; nothing seen but marks of deadly hate betweei 
the oppressing and oppressed churches; in good Willian 
Penn's country, glory to God, you met with no spectacle, 
of this sort; but, on the contrary, every thing to sparkh 
the eye of charity with pleasure. There you saw worship 
pers of a hundred different sects, moving along the street 
to their several churches, in the most perfect peace anc 
harmony ; there, whether Jews or Christians, Catholics oi 
Protestants, all adored God in the way they thought mos 
rational; and, meeting with no persecution themselves, thej 
felt no temptation to persecute others. Every poor emi 
grant to Pennsylvania was welcome as an exile from hii 
native land ; and, having no country or family of his own^ 
he found in William Penn a tender and generous father. 

''This most virtuous of men was the honoured instrumeni 
of blessings to thousands of the unfortunate ; and his in^ 
stitutioDS have laid the imperishable foundations of a ne^ 
empire, which shines like a star in the west, and whose rays 
have already begun to open the eyes of Europe. 

*' Having held the reins of government no longer than 
was necessary for the good of his province, he mixpd among 
his people as only one of their number, and despising on 
the one hand all the pomps of the falsely great, and filling 
up life, on the other, with the most beneficent labours, he 
came to the grave in a good old age, eulogized by the great- 
est philosophers, honoured above the proudest kings, and 
to this day revered by the Indians, as a benevolent spirit 
sent down from heaven to establish the reign of peace and 
happiness on earth." 



"the macaulay chaeges."* 

In this supplementary chapter I propose to review the 
charges made against William Penn hy Whig historian^ 
and adopted; with novelties and exaggerations of his own^ 
by Mr. Macaulay in his recent history. The reader who 
has traced his career from Tower Hill to the graveyard at 
Jordans, may hardly care to read what follows ; the simple 
record of his life being the most emphatic answer that can 
be given to party misrepresentation ; but I believe there are 
some who will look for a more formal refutation of these 
charges a( my hands, and for their satisfaction I enter into 
the" several points of controversy which have been raised. 
Every one is conscious of the animus which pervades the 
last Whig history. To point out the capricious likes and 
dislikes of the historian would be tedious^ and is unneces- 
sary : at the same time I will not deny that his page is alive 
with pictures, and that the narrative possesses a unity and 
vehemence which render it one of the most useful additions 
to our store of historical reading since the appearance of the 
Scotch novels. 

Mr. Macaulay has written several volumes of history and 
criticism. He must be aware that one of the fundamental 
laws of Critical Inquiry demands, that when a fact or a cha- 
racter has stood the tests of time, and in the progress of 
opinion has attained to something like a fixed position in the 
historical system, the evidence in support of any assault on it 
must be strong and free from taint in some fair proportion to 
the length of time and strength of opinion on which it rests. 

■ ■■■■■»■■ W ■■■■■■ ■ ■ ■-■ I ■■ — ^M^^ Mill ■ !■■— ^I^MI ■■■»< 

* From Dixon's Life of Penn. 


This rale is deeply based in human nature. The fixity of 
historical ideas is, in other words, the permanence of truth. 
Once a great historical verdict is passed, the noblest instincts 
of our being prompt us to guard it as something sacred, — 
to be set aside only after scrupulous inquiry and conclusive 
evidence against its justice. The wise man will not rashly 
disturb the repose of ages. Our faith in history is akin to 
religion : it is a confidence in our power to separate good 
from evil — truth from falsehood, — to preserve in their native 
purity the wisdom which serves to guide, and the memories 
which inspire the best actions of mankind. Mr. Macaulay 
will not deny the reasonableness of a rule growing out of 
such a feeling. He would himself exact the strongest &cts 
and the severest logic from the man who should presume to 
dispute the laws of Kepler ; and the fullest and most un- 
questionable evidence would be required in support of an 
assertion that Milton was a debauchee, or Buckingham a 
man of virtue. 

I will apply this canon to his own method. That I may 
not incur the charge of improperly assuming that Penn's 
reputation was thus historically fixed, I will cite Mr. Ma- 
caulay*s own reading of the verdict which more than a cen- 
tury and a half has ratified. " Rival nations/' he says, 
" have agreed in canonizing him. Englandt is proud of his 
name. A great commonwealth beyond the Atlantic regards 
him with a reverence similar to that which the Athenians 
felt for Theseus, and the Eomans for Quirinus. The respect- 
able society of which he was a member honours him as an 
apostle. By pious men of other persuasions he is generally 
regarded as a bright pattern of Christian virtue. Mean- 
while, admirers of a very difierent sort have sounded his 
praises. The French philosophers of the eighteenth cen- 
tury pardoned what they regarded as his superstitious fan- 
cies in consideration of his contempt for priests, and of his 
cosmopolitan benevolence, impartially extended to all races 


and all creeds. His name has thus become, throughout all 
civilized countries, a synonym for polity and philanthropy." 

This general verdict Mr. Macaulay challenges. He ad- 
mits that his attempt '< requires some courage;'' I think 
the reader will agree with him, when the evidence is ad- 
duced on which his challenge is supported. This evidence 
consists of five assertions : (I.) That his connection with 
the court in 1684, while he lived at Kensington, caused his 
own sect to look coldly on him and even treat him with 
obloquy. (TI.) That he "extorted money'* from the girls 
of Taunton for the maids of^honour. (IH.) That he allowed 
himself to be employed in the work of seducing Kiffin into 
a compliance with court designs. {^lY*) That he endea- 
voured to gain William's assent to the promulgated edict sus- 
pending the penal laws. (V.) That he " did his best to se- 
duce" the Magdalen collegians " from the path of right," and 
was " a broker in simony of a peculiarly discreditable kind.'* 

These allegations I shall examine in the order in which 
they occur. 

I. I quote Mr. Macaulay's own words. " He was soon 
surrounded by flatterers and suppliants. His house at Ken- 
sington was sometimes thronged at his hour of rising by 
more than two hundred suitors. He paid dear, however, 
for this seeming prosperity. Even his own sect looked coldly 
on him and requited his services with obloquy." His 
only authority for this statement is Gerard Croese, (Hist. 
Qua. lib. ii. 1695,) a Dutchman, who never was in England 
in his life, and whose work the Society of Friends has never 
recognised. Croese could have no trustworthy knowledge 
of the opinions of the Quakers, and no right to represent 
their (pinions. The statement is not, however, merely un- 
supported ; but it is positively contradicted by the Devon- 
shire House Eecords. These prove that at this time Penn 
was in regular attendance at the monthly meetings, and was 
elected to the highest offices in the body. 


II. That tlie reader may understand the Taunton affiiir, 
I must point out the features, with more exactness than Mr. 
Macaulay has done, which relate to his charge against Penn. 
When Monmouth arrived at Taunton, he found that the 
town had pledged itself to the rebellion, by the signal act 
of having had wrought, at the public expense, a set of royal 
standards for him and his army, by the daughters of the 
principal families. The ceremony of presenting these stand- 
ards was one of the most important acts of the rebellion ; 
at the head of her procession the schoolmistress carried the 
emblems of royal power — the Bible and the sword ;* and 
the royal banner was presented to the duke as to their sove- 
reign. Thereupon he assumed the name of King — set a 
price on his uncle's head — and proclaimed the Parliament 
thdD sitting a treasonable convention, to be pursued with 
war and destruction. f This insanity cost Monmouth his 
head, and won a gibbet for hundreds of his followers. The 
case of the maidens was not different to that of many others. 
They had taken, with their parents' knowledge, a prominent 
part in the rebellion ; and when the day of vengeance came, 
they stood before the law guilty of a crime for which the 
sentence was — death. The idea of sending them to the 
scaffold for faults which were their parents' more than their 
own, was of course not thought of; but that the parents 
might not escape punishment, the power to pardon them 
was given by the king to the maids of honour, — not likely, 
I must suppose, to be the most exacting of creditors, — as a 
sort of fee or bounty. It is to be remembered the sale of 
pardons was in that age a regular profession ; from the king — 
at least in Charles's time — to the link-boy or the porter a1 

* Mr. Macaulay forgets the sword, because Sir James Mackintosh hac 
forgotten it. 

f Though very fond of strong language, Mr. Macaulay softens thes* 
harsh words into simple "illegal assembly" ! his evident object being t< 
make the after-vengeance appear unprovoked. 


his gateS; almost every man and woman connected with the 
court regularly sold his or her influence. The young girls 
about the Queen, daughters, be it remembered, of the first 
&milies in the land, bad no proper conception of the horrid 
wickedness of this brokerage ; and they requested the Duke 
of Somerset to get the affair arranged for them on the best 
terms. Somerset wrote to Sir Francis Warre, the member 
for Bridgewater, asking him as a personal favour to see the 
parents, as being a neighbour and likely to be known to 
them, or to name some proper agent who might arrange the 
business. Warre had evidently no wish to be mixed up with 
an affair of this kind ; and he replied that it was already in 
proper hands, those of one Bird, the town-clerk. For some 
unknown reason the maids of honour forbade this agent to 
proceed in their behalf, and Warre was again applied to ; 
but he refused to name a broker on the spot, excusing him- 
self on the pleas that the Schoolmistress was a woman of 
mean birth, and the young ladies were acting at the time 
under her orders. Weeks elapsed, and no settlement was 
made by the parents ; nor do we know — except by infer- 
ence — what was done in the matter at court, until the fol- 
lowing letter was written : — 

"Whitehall, Feb. 13th, 1685-6. 

" Me. Penne : — Her Maj"** Maids of Honour having 
acquainted me that they designe to employ you and Mr. 
Waldon in making a composition with the Eolations of the 
Maids of Taunton for the high Misdemeanour they have been 
guilty of, I do at their request hereby let you know that 
His* Maj*y has been pleased to give their Fines to the said 
Maids of Honour, and therefore recommend it to Mr. Wal- 
den and you to make the most advantageous composition you 
can in their behalfe. I am, Sir, your humble servant, 

"Sunderland P.'' 

* In transcribing this letter from the State Papers, Mr. Forster writes 
" her" maj% — a mistake which gives an erroneous countenance to Mr. 
Maoftolsy's " scandal against Queen" Maria. 


To whom was this letter addressed? Sir James Macin- 
tosh, the first man who brought the letter to light, — ^for Mr. 
Macaulay has not even the merit of ori^alitj in his errors, — 
OMumed that it was addressed to William Penn ; and in this 
singular assumption he has been followed by his friend and 
admirer. But Macintosh went still further : he not only 
assumed, without warrant, that a letter addressed to a '^ Mr. 
Penne'' to engage him in a ^< scandalous transaction'^ was 
addressed to the Gt)vemor of Pennsylvania; but he also 
dared, in defiance of every rule of historical criticism^ to 
assume that William Penn a/xepted the commission that was 
so offered. Mr. Macaulay, of course, copied this gross mis- 
take from Sir James, and gave it the additional currency of 
his own volumes. This point is particularly noticeable, — 
that Mr. Macaulay did not consult the original authorities, 
but satisfied himself with merely quoting from the " Macin- 
tosh collection." Now this letter was certainly not addressed 
to William Penn. (1.) In the first place, it does not bear 
his name : he never wrote his name "Penne," nor did others 
ever so write it. In the Pennsylvania correspondence, in 
the Minutes of the Privy Council, and in the letters of Van 
Citters, Locke, Lawton, Bailey, Creech, and Hunt, and in 
the correspondence of his private friends, I have seen it 
written hundreds of times, but never once, even by acci- 
dent, with an e final. Least of all men could Sunderland, 
his intimate acquaintance from boyhood, make such a mis- 
take. (2.) The letter is highly disrespectful, if supposed 
to be written to a man of his rank — a man who had refused 
a peerage, and who stood before the court not only as a per- 
sonal friend to the king, but as Lord Proprietor of the largest 
province in America; the more especially would this be 
the case when it is considered that the letter was written by 
the polite and diplomatic Earl of Sunderland. (3.) The 
work to be done required a low, trafficking agent, who could 
go down to Taunton and stay there until the business was 


concluded : it is obvious that this could not be done by Wil- 
liam Penn. (4.) The letter is evidently a reply to an offer 
of service : the maids of honour " designe to employ" Mr. 
Penne and Mr. Walden, because^ as it seems to me^ they 
had applied for the office. Malice itself would shrink from 
the assumption that the governor of Pennsylvania would 
voluntarily solicit such an employment. (5.) It is contrary 
to every thing else that is known of Penn that he would 
allow himself, on any pretence, to be drawn into such a 
business. (6.) No mention of it occurs in any of his letters : 
I have read some hundreds of them, and, although he was 
the most communicative of correspondents, not a trace of 
his action, or of his having been applied to in the affair, 
is to be found. Knowing his epistolary habit, this fact 
alone would have satisfied my own mind. (7.) No mention 
has been made of his interference by any news-writer, pamph- 
leteer, or historian, — though, had he been concerned, the 
host of maligners, who rose against him on the flight of 
James, could certainly not have failed to point their sar- 
casms with the " scandalous transaction" and " extortion of 
money." (8.) No tradition of his appearance on the scene 
is preserved in the neighbourhood ; when, had he really been 
the agent employed, it is impossible that so conspicuous a 
broker could have faded so soon from local recollection. 

But, if William Penn were not the "Mr. Penne" ad- 
dressed by Lord Sunderland, and designed by the ladies to 
be employed in their behalf — who was the man ? A little 
research enables me to answer this question. In the regis- 
ters of the Privy Council I find this entry : — 

"Nov. 25th, 1687. 

" George Penne — Upon reading the petition of George 
Penne, gent., setting forth that his family having been great 
sufferers for their loyalty. He humbly begs that His Ma- 
jesty would be graciously pleased to grant him a patent for 


the sole exercising tbe royal Oake lottery, and licensing all 
other games, in his Majesty's plantations in America,, for 
twenty-one years. His Majesty in Council is pleased to 
refer this matter to the consideration of the Rt. Hon. the 
Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, and; upon what their 
lordships report of what is fit to be done therein for the 
petitioner, His Majesty will declare his further pleasure." 

This man, whose fitting reward, according to his own esti- 
mate of the value of his services, was the fief of a gaming- 
table^ was the Mr. Pcnne. His name is always spelt with 
the final e. In the first draft of the foregoing minute, the 
clerk had spelt the name George Penn, both in the mar- 
gin and in the text, but has filled the final letter in after- 
wards, as if prophetically guarding against any confusion 
of this wretched fellow with the great governor of Pennsyl- 
vania. He was a low hanger-on about the back-doors of • 
the court, ready for any dirty work. When pardons were 
to bo bought and sold, he was a pardon-broker. He was 
actively engaged in the Taunton affair; and among other feats, 
as I am able to state on the authority of a flimily-cash book 
still preserved, he obtained 66^. from Nathaniel Pinney as 
the ransom of his brother Azariah Pinney, one of the trans- 
ported rebels. Mr. Walden was apparently an agent of the 
same kind, and equally and deservedly obscure. For some 
reason, however, the " designe to employ" these men mis- 
carried, and the maids of honour found another agent in 
the person of Brent, the Popish lawyer, who was a regular 
pardon-broker, and was arrested on the flight of King James, 
as I find by the minutes of Privy Council. This fellow em- 
ployed as great a rascal as himself, one Crane of Bridge- 
water, as his sub-agent, and between them they settled the 
business, as Oldmixon relates. 

Having cleared Penn from this foul and unfounded^harge, 
let mc say a word or two in behalf of the maids of honour. 


Mr. Macanlaj says they " were at last forced to be content 
with less than a third" of 7000?. How much less ? Is 
there any evidence that they received a single guinea ? Dr. 
Toulmin collected his information from the families of the 
girls of Taunton, at a time when the children of the little 
rebels might have been still alive, and he says merely that 
some of the parents paid as much as fifty or a hundred 
pounds. Some of them ? Oldmixon tells us that the num- 
ber of the scholars was twenty. How many of twenty could 
be called some ? Take it at ten ; if pardons were purchased 
for ten, five at 601. and five at 1001., this would but yield 
750/. altogether. Besides which Oldmixon, who had pecu- 
liar means of learning the real facts, says the agent and his 
subordinate paid themselves bountifully out of the money. 
I know of no proof that the maids of honour got a shilling. 
While on this digression, I may add a remark in behalf 
* of another much-abused lady. The historian counts up with 
virtuous indignation the number of transported insurgents 
which the Queen, Maria d'Este, selected for her private por- 
tion of the spoil, and talks of ^Hhe thousand pounds" which 
she made by " her unprincely greediness and her unwomanly 
cruelty." Now we not only do not know how much, if any 
thing at all, the Queen put into her pocket, but we do not 
know for certain that she received for herself a single trans- 
port. We have no good reason to believe that she ever 
dreamt of such a thing. The only ground for this gross 
charge against the honour of a woman and a foreigner, is a 
letter of Sunderland to Lord Jeffreys — which Mr. Macaulay, 
as usual, has copied from the "Macintosh Collection," — in 
which that statesman, after giving a list of grants of pri- 
soners to various persons about the court, adds in a post- 
script — " The Queen has asked for a hundred more of the 
rebels who are to be transported ; as soon as I know for 
whom, yon shall hear from me again." It is clear enough 
from Sunderland's words that she did not ask them for her- 


self. It 19 equally clear that Mr. Macaulay's estimate of 
<< the profits she cleared on the cargo, after making large 
allowance for those who died of hanger and fever daring 
the passage/' is a mere inyention. The misfortunes of this 
woman should have shielded her from injustice. 

III. Towards the close of his reign, when the churchmen 
openly repudiated their own doctrine of passive obedience, 
James became anxious to secure the adhesion of his dis- 
senting subjects; and among other leading men, he selected 
Penn's old opponent, William Kiffin, the Baptist, for a city 
magistracy. But two of Kiffin's grandsons had been taken 
and executed in the Western rebellion, and it was doubted 
whether the old man would comply with the wishes of the 
court. At this point Mr. Macaulay introduces Penn. "The 
heartless and venal sycophants of Whitehall, judging by 
themselves, thought that the old man would bo easily pro- 
pitiated by an alderman's gown, and by some compensation 
in money, for the property which his grandsons had for- 
feited. Penn was employed in the work of seduction, but 
to no purpose." Now, there is not the slightest foundation 
in history for this statement. Mr. Macaulay here asserts 
that Penn was " employed," by the " heartless and venal 
sycophants" of the court, to seduce Kiffin into an accept- 
ance of the alderman's gown, — and that he failed. The 
passage means this, or it means nothing. It will be allowed 
that on such a point Kiffin himself must be the best author- 
ity : in his autobiography, lately published from the origi- 
nal manuscript, he says, — ^* In a little after, a great tempta- 
tion attended me, which was a commission from the King, 
to be one of the aldermen of the city of London; which, as 
soon as I heard of it, I used all the diligence I could, to be 
excused, both by some lords near the King, and also by Sir 
Nicholas Butler and Mr. Penn. But it' was all in vain." 
This is just the reverse of what Mr. Macaulay states. Penn 
did not go to Kiffin ; Kiffin went to Penn. Instead of be- 


ing employed in the work of seduction, he was engaged in 
the task of intercession. Mr. Macaulej makes Kiffin refuse 
the magistracy : Kiffin says he accepted it : — " The next 
court-day I came to the court, and took upon me the office 
of alderman." 

lY. A little attention to dates will soon dispose of the 
fourth charge against Penn. Mr. Macaulay writes — " All 
men were anxious to know what he [the Prince of Orange] 
thought of the Declaration of Indulgence. . . . Penn 
sent copious disquisitions to the Hague, and even went 
thither in the hope that his eloquence, of which he had a 
high opinion, would prove irresistible." Now, Penn re- 
turned from G-ermany in the autumn of 1686, and the De- 
claration was not issued until April, 1687. After 1686, he 
never went to the Dutch capital. There is no evidence, 
even, that Penn sent over " copious disquisitions ;" Burnet, 
Mr. Macaulay's authority, says not a word on such a subject. 
When Penn was at the Hague, in the summer of 1686, the 
subject that was under discussion rekted to the Tests, not 
the Indulgence. The Declaration was unthought of at that 
time ; — Burnet is very clear on this point. But there is 
other proof that Mr. Macaulay's guesswork is wrong. In 
November, 1686, ^ve months before the Declaration was 
issued, Van Citters reported to his correspondent the sub- 
stance of the conversation between Penn and the Prince, 
as it was then known in court circles in London ; and in 
that report no mention whatever is made of the Declaration. 

V. In the ninth chapter of the preceding memoir, I have 
given the true history of Penn's connection with the affisiir 
of Magdalen College. In this place I shall content my- 
self with a special refutation of Mr. Macaulay's errors ; first 
quoting his material passages, and numbering them for sepa- 
rate remark. (1) "Penn was at Chester, on a pastoral 
tour. His popularity and authority among his brethren 

had greatly declined (2) since he had become a tool of 



the King and the" Jesuits." . . •. (8) "Perhaps the col- 
lege might still be terrified, caressed, or bribed into sab- 
mission. The agency of Penn was employed." . . . (4) 
" The courtly Quaker, therefore, did his best to seduce the 
college from the path of right." . . . (5) "To such a 
degree had his manners been corrupted by evil communica- 
tions, and his understanding obscured by inordinate zeal 
for a single object, that he did not scruple to become a 
broker in simony of a peculiarly discreditable kind, and to 
use a bishopric as a bait to tempt a divine to perjury." 
These assertions may be looked at, one by onej as they stand 
here. (1) Had Penn become in 1687 — the date of Mr. 
Macaula/s authority — unpopular and powerless with his 
brethren ? There is, fortunately, better evidence than that 
of an agent of Louis Quatorze t the evideUce of the " bre- 
thren" themselves. The Records at Devonshire House 
prove that his influence was high as evel* in the society of 
Friends : he was elected to speak their sentiments ; he 
served their most important offices ; was ill accord with Fox, 
Crisp, and the other leaders ; and at the very moment when 
Mr. Macaulay introduces him with this disparaging com- 
ment, he was on a religious tour, one of the most popular 
and brilliant of his public ministry. To this may be added 
the testimony of Penn himself; in one of his letters he ex- 
pressly says that it is at the joint request of the Society 
of Friends, and of persons in authority, that he is engaged 
in the business of the nation. (2) Was he ever " a tool of 
the King and of the Jesuits ?" No man, I venture to be- 
lieve, will entertain a doubt on this point, after reading the 
ninth chapter of these memoirs, and the authorities there 
cited. Family experiences had given him an early abhor- 
rence of the persecuting spirit of the Roman Church. In 
his youth he had written against the errors of Popery, and 
in his riper age had pointed many a sentence with honest 
indignation at Jesuit morals. 


Now that the Jesuits had acquired power at court, he 
continually hazarded his influence by urging the King to 
banish them from the royal presence. Citters, Johnstone^ 
and Clarendon, all testify clearly to this effect. The Dutch 
diplomatist says, " Penn has had a long interview with the 
King, and has, he thinks, shown to the King that Parlia- 
ment will not consent to a revocation of the Test and Penal 
Laws — ^and that he never will get a Parliament to his mind, 
so long as he will not adopt moderate councils, and drive 
away from his presence the immoderate Jesuits, and other 
Papists who surround him daily, and whose ultra councils 
he now follows." Johnstone says expressly, that Penn waa 
against the order commanding the Declaration to be read 
in the churches. Clarendon says in his Diary that Penn 
*^ laboured to thwart the Jesuitical influence that predomi- 
nated.'^ On what authority, then, does Mr. Macaulay make 
his assertion ? Simply on his own ! Was he a tool of the 
King ? The idea is absurd. He never sacrificed a point to 
the humour of James ; but he often crossed that humour, 
and his political action was always against the court. Not 
to go so far back as the days of Sidney, when, according to 
Barillon, he divided the leadership of the most advanced 
body of Reformers with that great Republican, — if his pri- 
vate friendship was given to Sunderland, Halifax, and Ro- 
chester, his political sympathy was always with the more 
liberal men of the opposition. The supporters of Monmouth 
looked to him and half a dozen others to bring over the 
American colonies to the cause of liberty and Protestantism. 
Though he was trusted by James, he was always an object 
of suspicion to his government. He plainly told the King 
of his errors; he advised him to expel the Jesuits from 
Whitehall ; not to trust to his prerogative, but to meet his 
Parliament with wise and just proposals; not to insist on 
haying the Declaration read by the clergy ; not to commit 
the seven Prelates to the Tower. And when that impolitic 


act had been oommitted, he advised him to take the gracious 
opportunity afforded by the birth of a Prince of Wales to set 
them at liberty^ and still further to signalize the occasion by 
a general amnesty to the exiles in Holland. He counselled 
him to submit to the will of the nation^ and to be content 
with a simple toleration of his religion. Can this man be 
called a ''tool" of the King? Let Mr. Macaulay show an- 
other man in that age with equal boldness and integrity. 
He brayed the royal frowns again and again in the cause 
of mercy. He obtained a pardon for Locke, another for 
Trenchard, another for Aaron Smith — all of them men who 
had deeply offended James. He compelled him to listen to 
the councils of the leading Whigs ; and in the Oxford affair 
told him he was in the wrong in plainer language than the 
usages of speech would permit to ordinary men. This man 
a tool ! (3) Was the agency of Penn employed to terrify, 
caress, or bribe the collegians into submission ? There is 
not even a shadow of authority for this most uncharitable 
assertion. Penn was alarmed at the quarrel, fearing it 
might lead, through the combined obstinacy of the King 
and Fellows, to a loss of the College Charter, and a trans- 
fer of its immense revenues to the Papists — and he inter- 
posed his good offices to heal the wound. Instead of look- 
ing on him as a person " employed" to terrify, caress, or 
bribe them into submission, we have the evidence of Dr. 
Bailey, one of the inculpated Fellows, and that of Thomas 
Creech, a stadent, that the collegians regarded him as a 
friend and mediator " in their behalf." (4) Did he " do 
his best to seduce the college from the path of right ?" Mr. 
Macaulay's knowledge of the proceeding appears to be de- 
rived from " Wilmot's Life of Hough" — though he does not 
quote it — and from the " State Trials." To these sources 
of information must be added the MS. letters of Dr. Sykes 
and Mr. Creech, preserved in the Bodleian Library at Ox- 
ford, and the MS. papers of Gleorge Hunt, now in the pos- 


session of the President of Magdalen College. Hunt was 
one of the Fellows, and was present at the interview with 
Penn ; Sykes and Creech were hoth of them well informed 
as* to all the incidents which occurred ; yet so far is either 
he, or are they, from saying that he attempted to ^^ seduce 
them from the path of right/ ^ that they agree exactly in the 
emphatic and conclusive statement that, after hearing their 
reasons, he agreed with them that they were justified in 
their resistance. He even went further ; he became their 
champion. In their presence he wrote a manly English 
letter to his sovereign, in which he told him in very plain 
terms — 'Hhat their case was hard; that in their circum- 
stances they could not yield without a breach of their oaths; 
and that such mandates were a force on conscience, and 
not agreeable to the King's other gracious indulgences.'^ 
How singularly unfortunate is Mr. Macaulay in his author- 
ities I " Penn,*' he says, " exhorted the Fellows not to 
rely on the goodness of their cause, but to submit, or at 
least to temporize." I defy Mr. Macaulay to give any trust- 
worthy authority for this macchiavellian council. He wisely 
abstains from quoting his author ; but the curious reader 
will find it in the twelfth volume of the " State Trials," in 
the shape of an anonymous letter which was addressed by 
some unknown person, during the heat of the dispute, to 
Dr. Bailey, one of the Fellows. Bailey, " from the chari- 
table purpose" of the letter, thought it might have come 
from Penn ; and to ascertain the fact, wrote a reply to Penn 
without signing his name, saying that if he were his anony- 
mous correspondent, he would know how to address his an- 
swer. Of course no reply came. No man conversant with 
Penn's habit of writing could for an instant mistake it for 
his; it commences, "Sir," — ^and the second person plural 
is used throughout. Nor is this all the evidence against its 
being written by Penn. The contemporary account of these 
proceedings has written, in Hunt's hand, on the margin of 


this letter, tbe words — " This letter Mr. Penn disowned/' 
Yet it is on the assumption that Penn actually wrote this 
thrice-proven spurious epistle, that Mr. Macaulay has built 
his most serious accusation ! What would be said of such 
evidence in a court of justice ? Surely the memories of the 
illustrious dead are not less precious than the property 
of tbe living I Let me say, to the credit of Macintosh, 
that he makes no charge against Penn in this Oxford busi- 
ness. Here Mr. Macaulay is perfectly original. (5) Did 
Penn deal '' in simony of a particularly disreputable kind, 
and use a bishopric as a bait to tempt a divine to perjury ?" 
Mr. Macaulay continues to represent him as employed by 
the court; and having, as he says, failed in bis attempt to 
terrify the collegians into obedience, he '^ then tried a gen- 
tler tone. He had an interview with Hough, and with some 
of the Fellows, and, after many professions of sympathy and 
friendship, began to hint at a compromise. . . . 'How 
should you like,' said Penn, ' to see Dr. Hough Bishop of 
Oxford V ** Hereupon follows the indignation about simony 
and perjury. 

Now, let us see what is really known about this interview. 
Dr. Hough, its chief subject, wrote on the evening of the 
day on which it took place a letter to his cousin, in which 
he recited the principal heads of the discourse, — and this 
account, from one too deeply interested to be impartial, and 
too much excited to remember any thing but what especially 
concerned his own prospects and position, is unfortunately 
the only existing authority. Hunt was not present at this 
interview, and no account of it is preserved in the Magda- 
len College MSS. Holden's MS. letters in the same library 
commence posterior to the aflfair of Penn ; and Baron Jen- 
ner's MS. account of the Visitation is not to be found. But 
let us take the authority we have, imperfect though it be, 
and see what matter can be drawn from it in support of the 
accusation. What says Hough ? In the outset, instead of 


Peon being ''employed/^ as Mr. Macaulay contiDues to 
misrepresent him; to solicit the Fellows^ it appears that the 
Fellows had sent a deputation to him, consisting of Hough 
and the principal members of the college. Their conversa- 
tion lasted ihreeJiours ; the substance of it I have given in 
the text of the ninth chapter of the memoir : Mr. Macaulay's 
version of it is inexact in all its essential particulars. " He 
then tried a gentler tone.^' The historian does not seem to 
know that two interviews took place^ one at Oxford, the 
other at Windsor, with six weeks of an interval ; there is 
DO evidence, except the spurious letter, that he ever used 
other than a gentle tone. He '< began to hint at a compro- 
mise :" the words of Hough are — " I thank God he did not 
so much as offer at any proposal by way of accommodation.'^ 
How reconcile such statements? Now let us hear what 
Hough says of the simony and perjury. Penn, who, accord- 
ing to Swift, ^' spoke agreeably and with spirit," was always 
more or less facetious in conversation. Like his father, he 
was fond of a joke, and had that delight in drollery which 
belongs to the highest natures. In this very conversation 
we see how he made his rhetoric dance — '^ Christ Church is 
a noble structure. University is a pleasant place, and Mag- 
dalen College is a comely building.'' Hough, though not 
the most quick-witted of men, saw that he " had a mind to 
droll upon us." Stolid and heavy. Hough no doubt reported 
the conversation honestly, so far as he could remember and 
understand it. To quote his words — " Once he said, smil' 
inff, If the Bishop of Oxford die, Dr. Hough may be made 
Bishop. What think you of that, gentlemen ?" Cradock, 
one of the Fellows present, took up the tone of pleasantry^ 
and replied, " They should be heartily glad of it — for it 
would do very well with the presidency." Does any one 
doubt that this was a mere pleasantry ? Observe, Penn had 
no commission to treat with the Fellows, — that ho met them 
at their own request, to consider how he could serve their 


interests. That Cradook thought it a joke is evident from 
his retort. Had the suggestion of the bishopric been in 
earnest, it must have been offered on condition of Hough 
giving up the presidency of his college — that being the point 
at issue. In such a case, to talk of the combination of the 
two offices would have been insulting and absurd. Even 
Hough himself, the least jocular of men, understood this 
remark as a mere pleasantry, for he instantly adds, '^ But, 
I told him, seriously, I had no ambition." And yet this 
innocent mirth, accepted and understood as such by all the 
parties concerned, after a lapse of nearly two centuries, is 
revived and tortured into a ground for one of the foulest 
accusations ever brought against an historical reputation I 
Is this English History? 

Having far exceeded the limits of my original intention, 
which was only to introduce William Penn to the rising 
generation, and thereby induce the spirit of inquiry to read 
the various able biographies written of him, — to which, and 
his autobiography, I now make every acknowledgement for 
the liberties I have taken with them in compiling this 
sketch, — I have to regret that, even after lengthening my 
short memoir to its present extent, I have so signally failed 
to portray him in his full and diversified character. I have 
met with nothing, in my opinion, that has done him justice, 
neither as a Christian nor lawgiver, highly as he has been 
extolled for both. I did not know, when I penned my 
sketch, that he had ever been likened unto Moses. When 
we consider the darkness of the age in which he lived, both 
in a religious and political point of view, — the circumstances 
that surrounded him, — and contrast him with his fellows, 
which is the only correct method to obtain a true picture, 
we find him determined at all hazards to do good, surmount- 
ing every obstacle that parental authority wielding an im- 
mense estate could do to intimidate him, together with the 


lawB of his benighted country, which inflicted most direful 
panishments and persecutions upon him; thon^ added to all 
this, the natural propensities of the human heart, <' which 
is deceitful above all thingti^ and desperately wicked :" — I 
say, contrast him with his fellows, and we find many of 
them pursuing a course diametrically opposite to his. In- 
deed, every thing that parents, government, and Mends 
could do, were brought into requisition to guard their mo- 
rals ; yet, in defiance of all these restraints, the number 
who delighted to do evil and throw themselves away was 
very great. I would call the reader's attention to the dia- 
logue held between Sir William Penn and his wife, after 
William's expulsion from home, as given by Weems, for 
a clearly-defined exposition of my views. 

Qood and great as he was, he was not shielded from the 
attacks of the ignorant and designing. I, therefore, take 
the liberty of calling attention to his biography by William 
Hepworth Dixon of England, written in 1851 ; and that 
also by Samuel M. Janney of Virginia, written since to 
exculpate him from various charges recently promulgated ; 
they have succeeded, without an efibrt, to burnish him up, 
and caused him to shine forth even as the sun after a sum- 
mer thunderstorm. Notwithstanding the facetious style 
of the Kev. M. L. Weems, I think his life of Penn should 
be introduced into every school in Pennsylvania, and in as 
many elsewhere as possible. 

t • ■ 

- 1 


mMvt (HlhrnttMitj ^mvtt 

I l 



Headeb: — 

By this short ensaiDg treatise^ thou wilt perceive the sub- 
ject of it, — ^viz. : The Light of Christ in Man, as the Mani- 
festation of God's Love for Man's Happiness. Now, foras- 
much as this is the peculiar testimony and characteristic 
of the people called Quakers, — ^their great fundamental in 
religion, — ^that by which they have been distinguished from 
other professors of Christianity in their time, and to which 
they refer all people about fidth, worship, and practice both 
in their ministry and writings, — ^that as the fingers shoot out 
of the hand, and the branches from the body of the tree, — 
so true religion, in all the parts and articles of it, springs 
from this divine principle in man. And because the preju- 
dices of some are very great against this people and their 
way ; and that others, who love their seriousness and com- 
mend their good life, are yet, through mistakes, or want of 
inquiry, under jealousy of their unsoundness in some points 
of faith; and that there are not a few in all persuasions 
wbich desire earnestly to know and enjoy God in that sen- 
sible manner this people speak of, and who seem to long 
after a state of holiness and acceptance with God, but are 
under doubts and despondings of their attaining it, from the 
want they find in themselves of inward power to enable 
tbem, and are unacquainted with this efficacious agent which 
God hath given and appointed for their supply. 

For these reasons and motives, know, reader, I have taken 

in hand to write this small tract of the nature and virtue 

of the light of Christ within man ; what and where it is, 

l» 6 


and for what end, and therein of the religion of the people 
called Quakers ; that, at the same time, all people may be 
informed of their true character, and what true religion is, 
and the way to it, in this age of high pretences and as deep 
irreligion ; that so the merciful visitation of the Qod of light 
and love, (more especially to these nations,) both immedi- 
ately and instrumentally for the promotion of piety, (which 
is religion indeed,) may no longer be neglected by the inha- 
bitants thereof, but that they may come to see and say, with 
heart and mouth, this is a dispensation of love and life from 
God to the world ; and this poor people, that we have so 
much despised, and so often trod upon, and treated as the 
off-scouring of the earth, are the people of Qtod and chil- 
dren of the Most High. Bear with me, reader; I know 
what I say, and am not high-minded, but fear ; for I write 
with humility towards Qod, though with confidence towards 
thee; not that thou shouldst believe upon my athority; 
nothing less, for that's not to act upon knowledge, but trust, 
but that thou shouldst try and approve what I write ; for 
that is all I ask, as well as all I need for thy conviction and 
my own justification. The whole, indeed, being but a Spir- 
itual experiment upon the soul, and therefore seeks for no 
implicit credit, because it is self-evident to them that will 
uprightly try it. 

And when thou, reader, shalt come to be acquainted with 
this principle, and the plain and happy teachings of it, thou 
wilt with us admire thou shouldst live so long a stranger to 
that which was so near thee, and as much wonder that other 
folks should be so blind as not to see it, as formerly thou 
thoughtest us singular for obeying it. The day, I believe, 
is at hand that will declare this with an uncontrollable au- 
thority, because it will be with an unquestionable evidence. 

I have done, reader, with this preface when I have told 
thee : — ^first, that I have stated the principle and opened, as 
God has enabled me, the nature and virtue of it in religion^ 


wherein the common doctrines and articles of the Christian 
religion are delivered and improved, and abont which I 
have endeavoured to express myself in plain and proper 
terms, and not in figurative, allegorical or doubtful phrases, 
that so I may leave no room for an equivocal or double 
sense ; but that the truth of the subject I treat upon may 
appear easily and evidently to every common understand- 
ing. Next, I have confirmed what I writ by Scripture, 
reason, and the effects of it upon so great a people, whose 
uniform concurrence in the experience and practice thereof, 
through all times and sufferings since a people, challenge 
the notice and regard of every serious reader. Thirdly, I 
have written briefly, that so it might be every one's mone^ 
and reading; and, much in a little is best, when we see 
daily that the richer people grow, the less money or time 
they have for God or religion ; and perhaps those that would 
not buy a large book may find in their hearts to give away 
some of these for their neighbour's good, being little and 
cheap. Be serious, reader, be impartial, and then be as in- 
quisitive as thou canst, and that for thine own soul, as well 
as the credit of this most misunderstood and abused people ; 
and the God and Father of lights and spirits so bless thine, 
in the perusal of this short treatise, that thou may'st receive 
real benefit by it, to his glory and thine own comfort, which 
is the desire and end of him that wrote it ; who is, in the 
bonds of Christian charity, very much and very ardently. 

Thy real friend, 

WhiLIAM Penn. 







f '.J 





J 1. Their Fundamental Principle. { 2. The Nature of it. i 8. Called 
by several names. J 4. They refer all to this, as to Faith and 
Practice, Ministry and Worship. 

§ 1. That which the people called Quakers lay 
down as a main fundamental in religion is this — 
TTiat Q-od^ through Christy hath placed a principle 
in every man, to inform him of his duty, and to 
enable him to do it; and that those that live up to 
this principle are the people of God, and those that 
live in disobedience to it, are not God's people, what- 
ever name they may bear, or profession they may 
make of religion. This is their ancient, first, and 
standing testimony: with this they began, and this 
they bore, and do bear to the world. 

§ 2. By this principle they understand something 
that is divine; and though in man, yet not of man, 
but of God ; and that it came from him, and leads to 
him all those that will be led by it. 

§ 3. There are divers ways of speaking they have 
been led to use, by which they declare and express 
what this principle is, about which I think fit to pre- 
caution the reader — viz., they call it. The light of 
Christ within man, or, light within, which is their 

ancient, and most general and familiar phrase, also 



the ^manifestation ^or appearance of Ohrist^^ the ^wit- 
ness of Q-ody the heed of Q-od, the heed of the king- 

(*) Jolin i. 9. That was the true light which lighteth eyery man 
that oometh into the world. 

(*) Rom. i. 19. Because that which may be known of God is 
numifest in them ; for God hath showed it nnto them. 

Titns iii. 4. But after that the kindness and loye of God our 
SaTiour toward man appeared. * 

(3) Acts xTii. 28. For in him we live, and move, and have our 
being ; as certain also of your own poets have said, For we are also 
his offspring. 

2 Peter i. 4. Whereby are given unto us exceeding great and 
precious promises; that by these ye might be partakers of the 
diyine nature, haying escaped the corruption that is in the world 
through lust. 

(^) Rom. yiii. 6. For to be carnally minded, is death ; but to be 
spiritually minded, is life and peace. 

1 John y. 10-12. He that believeth on the Son of God, hath the 
witness in himself: he that believeth not God, hath made him a 
liar; because he belieyeth not the record that God gave of his 
Son. And this is the record, that God hath given to us eternal life; 
and this life is in his Son. He that hath the Son, hath life ; and he 
that hath not the Son of God, hath not life. 

(*) 1 Peter i. 23. Being born again, not of corruptible seed, but 
of incorruptible, by the word of God, which liveth and abideth for- 

1 John iii. 9. Whosoever is bom of God, doth not commit sin ; 
for his seed remaineth in him : and he cannot sin, because he is bom 
of God. 

(^) Matt. xiii. 19-23. When any one heareth the word of the 
kingdom, and understandeth it not, then cometh the wicked One, 
and catcheth away that which was sown in his heart. This is he 
which receiveth seed by the way side. 

But he that received the seed into stony places, the same is he 
that heareth the word, and anon with joy receiveth it: yet hath he 
not root in himself, but dureth for a while : for when tribulation or 
persecution ariseth, because of the word, by-and-by he is offended. 

He also that received seed among the thorns, is he that heareth 


dom, "^ wisdom, the ^word in the heart, the grac^ that 
appears to all men, the ^spirit given to evert/ man to 

the word; and the care of this world, and the deceitfohiess of 
riches, choke the word, and he becometh unfruitful. 

But he that received seed into the good ground, is he that hearetb 
the word, and understandeth it; which also beareth fruit, and 
bringeth forth, some an hundred-fold, some sixty, some thirty. 

(}) Prov. L 20-23. -^isdom crieth without; she uttereth her 
Yoice in the streets : she crieth in the chief place of concours^, in 
the openings of the gates : in the city she uttereth her words, say- 
inff, How long, ye simple ones, will ye love simplicity ? and the 
scomers delight in their scorning, and fools hate knowledge ? Turn 
ye at my reproof: behold, I will pour out my spirit unto you, I 
will make known my words unto you. 

Prov. viii. 1-4. Doth not wisdom cry ? and understanding put 
forth her voice ? She standeth in the top of high places, ij the 
way in the places of the paths. She crieth at the gates, at the 
entry of the city, at the coming in at the doors : Unto you, men, 
I call ; and my voice is to the sons of man. 

(*) Deut. XXX. 12-14. It is not in heaven, that thou shouldest 
say. Who shall go up for us to heaven, and bring it unto us, that we 
may hear it, and do it? Neither is it beyond the sea, that thou 
shouldest say. Who shall go over the sea for us, and bring it unto 
us, that we may hear it, and do it ? But the word is very nigh unto 
thee, in thy mouth, and in thy heart, that thou mayest do it. 

Rom. X. 6-8. But the righteousness which is of faith speaketh 
on this wise. Say not in thine heart. Who shall ascend into heaven ? 
(that is, to bring Christ down from above ;) or. Who shall descend 
into the deep ? (that is, to bring up Christ again from the dead :) 
But what saith it ? The word is nigh thee, even in thy mouth, and 
in thy heart ; that is, the word of faith, which we preach. 

Psalm cxix. 10. With my whole heart have I sought thee : let 
me not wander from thy commandments. 

(S) Titus ii. 11, 12. For the grace of God, that bringeth salva- 
tion, hath appeared to all men, teachiAg us, that, denying ungodli- 
ness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and 
godly, in this present world. 

(*) 1 Cor. xii. 7. But the manifestation of the Spirit is given to 
every man to profit withal. 


profit with, the HrutJi in the inward partly the Hpu 
ritual leaven that leavens the whole lump of man : 
which are many of them figurative expressions, but 
all of them such as the Holy Ghost hath used, and 
which will be used in this treatise, as they are most 
frequently in the writings and ministry of this peo- 
ple. But that this variety and manner of expression 
may not occasion any misapprehension or confusion 
in the understanding of the reader, I would have him 
know, that they always mean by th^se terms or deno- 
minations, not another^ but the same principle, before 
mentioned ; which, as I said, though it be in man, is 
not of man, but of God, and therefore divine: and 
one jn itself, though diversely expressed by the holy 
men, according to the various manifestations and 
operations thereof. 

4. It is to this principle of Light, Life, and Grace, 
that this People refer all : for they say it is the great 
Agent in Religion ; that^ without which, there is no 
Conviction^ so no Conversion^ or Regeneration ; and 
consequently no entering into the Kingdom of God. 
That is to say, there can be no true sight of sin, nor 
sorrow for it, and therefore no forsaking or over- 
coming of it, or Remission or Justification from it. 
A necessary and powerful Principle indeed, when 

(') Psalm li. 6. Behold, tliou desirest truth in the inward parte: 
and in the hidden part thou shalt make me to know wisdom. 

Isaiah xxvi. 2. Open ye the gates, that the righteous nation 
which keepeth the truth may enter in. 

John xiv. 6. Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, and the truth« 
and the life : no man cometh unto the Father but by me. 

(2) Matt. xiii. 33. Another parable spake he unto them; The 
kingdom of heaven is like unto leaven, which a woman took, and 
hid in three measures of meal, till the whole was leavened. 


neither Sanctification nor. Justification can be had 
without it. In short, there is no becoming virtuous, 
holy and^good, without this Principle; no acceptance 
with God, nor peace of soul, but through it.^ But on 
the contrary, that the reason of so much irreligion 
among Christians, so much Buperstition^ instead of 
Devotion, and so much profession without enjoyment, 
and so little Heart-reformation^ is, because people in 
religion, overlook this Principle, and leave it behind 

They will be religious without it, and Christians 
without it, though this be the only means of making 
them so indeed. 

So natural is it to Man, in his degenerate state, to 
prefer sacrifice before obedience, and to make prayers 
go for practice, and so flatter himself with hope, by 
ceremonial and bodily service, to excuse himself to 
God from the stricter discipline of this Principle in 
the soul, which leads Man to take up the Cross, 
deny self, and do that which God requires of him : 
and that is every man's true religion, and every such 
man is truly religious ; that is, he is holy, humble, 
patient, meek, merciful, just, kind, and charitable; 
which they say, no man can make himself; but that 
this principle will make all men so that will embrace 
the convictions and teachings of it, being the root of 
all true religion in man, and the good seed from 
whence nil good fruits proceed. To sum up what 
they say upon the nature and virtue of it, as contents 
of that which follows, they declare that this principle 
is, first, divine; secondly, universal; thirdly, effica- 
cious; in that it gives man, first, the knowledge of 
God and of himself, and therein a sight of his duty 
and disobedience to it. Secondly, it begets a true 


9en9e and sorrow for sin in those that seriously 
regard the convictions of it. Thirdly, it enables them 
to forsake sin^ and sanctifies from it. Fourthly, 
it applies Q-od's mercies in Christ for the forgiveness 
of sins that are past, unto justification^ upon such 
sincere repentance and obedience. Fifthly, it gives 
to the faithful, perseverance unto a perfect man, and 
the assurance of blessedness, world without end. 

To the truth of all which, they call in a threefold 
evidence : First, the Scriptures, which give an ample 
witness, especially those of the New and better Tes- 
tament. Secondly, the reasonableness of it in itself. 
And lastly, a general experience, in great measure ; 
but particularly, their own, made credible by the good 
fruits they have brought forth, and the answer Crod 
has given to their ministry : which, to impartial ob- 
servers, have commended the principle, and gives 
me occasion to abstract their history, in divers par- 
ticulars, for a conclusion to this little treatise. 



2 1. The evidence of Scripture for this Principle, John i. 4-9. In 
Him was life ; and the life was the light of men. That was the 
true Light, which lighteth every man that cometh into the world. 
22. ItsDiyinity. i3. All things created by it i4. What it is 
to Man as to Salyation. 

§ 1. I SHALL begin with the evidence of the blessed 
Scriptures of Truth, for this divine principle^ and that 
under the name of lighty the first and most common 
word used by them, to express and denominate this 
principle by, as well as most apt and proper in this 
dark state of the world. 

John i. 1. In the beginning was the Wordy and the 
Word was with God, and the Word was Grod. 

Verse 3. All things were made by him. 

Verse 4. In him was life, and the life was the 
light of men. 

Verse 9. That was the true Light, which lighteth 
every man that cometh into the world. 

§ 2. I have begun with him that began his history 
with him that was the beginning of the creation of 
God' the most beloved disciple, and longest liver of 
all the apostles, and he, that for excellent knowledge 
and wisdom in heavenly things, is justly entitled 
John the divine. He tells us first, what he was in 
the beginning, viz. The Word. In the beginning 
was the Word. 

And though that shows what the Word must be. 


yet he adds and explains, that the Word was with 
God, and the Word was God ; lest any should doubt 
of the divinity of the Word, or have lower thoughts 
of him than he deserved. The Word then, is divine^ 
and an apt term it is, that the evangelist styles him by, 
since it is so great an expression of the wisdom and 
power of God to men. 

§ 3. All things were made hy Him. If so, he 
wants no power. And if we were made by him, we 
must be new made by him too, or we never can enjoy 
God. His power shows his dignity, and that nothing 
can be too hard for such a sufficiency as made all 
things, and without which .nothing was made, that 
was made. As man's maker must be his husband, so 
his Creator must be his Redeemer also. 

§ 4. In him was life, and the life was the light of 
men. This is our point. The evangelist first begins 
with the nature and being of the Word : from thence 
he descends to the works .of the Word : and lastly, 
then he tells us, what the Word is, with respect to 
man above the rest of the creation, viz. The Word 
was life, and the life was the light of men. The re- 
lation must be very near and intimate, when the very 
life of the Word {that was with Grod, and was God) 
is the light of men: as if men were next to the 
Word, and above all the rest of his works ; for it is 
not said so of any other creature. - 

Man cannot want light then ; no not a divine 
light : for if this be not divine, that is the life of the 
divine word, there can be no such thing at all as di- 
vine or supernatural light and life. And the text 
does not only prove the divinity of the light, but the 
universality of it also, because man mentioned in it, 
is mankind: which is yet more distinctly expressed 


in his 9th verse, That wcu the true light, which 
lighteth every man that cameth into the world. Im- 
plying, that be that lighteth not mankind is not that 
true light; and therefore John was not that light, 
but bore witness of him that was, who lighteth every 
man ; to wit, the Word that took flesh : so that both 
the divine nature, and univenalitg of the light of 
Christ within, are confirmed together. 


2 1. How this Scripture is wrested, j 2. That it is a Natural 
Light. 2 3. That it Ughteth not aU. { 4. That it is only the 
Doctrine and Dfe of Christ when in the Flesh. All answered, 
and its Diyinity and Universality proved. 

§ 1. But though there be no passage or proposition 
to be found in Holy Scripture, in which mankind is 
more interested, or that is more clearly laid down by 
the Holy Ghost, than this I have produced, yet 
hardly hath any place been more industriously 
wrested from its true and plain sense : especially 
since this people have laid any stress upon it, in de- 
fence of their testimony of the light within. Some 
will have it to be but a natural light, or a part of 
man's nature, though it be the very life of the Word, 
by which the world was made ; and mentioned within 
those verses, which only concern his eternal power 
and Godhead, But because I would be understood, 
and treat of things with all plainness, I will open the 
terms of the objection as well as I can, and then give 
my answer to it. 



§ 2. If by natural be meant a created thing, as man 
is, or any thing that is requisite to the composition 
of man, I deny it : the text is expressly against it ; 
and says, the light with which man is lighted, is the 
life of the wordy which was with Q-od^ and was Gf-od, 
But if by natural is only intended, that the light comes 
along with us into the world ; or that we have it as 
sure as we are born, or have nature ; and is the light 
of our nature, of our minds and understandings, and 
is not the result of any revelation from without, as by 
angels or men ; then we mean and intend the same 
thing. For it is natural to man to have a supernatural 
lighty and for the creature to be lighted by an uncre- 
ated light, as is the life of the creating word. And 
did people but consider the constitution of man, it 
would conduce much to preserve or deliver them from 
any dilemma upon this account. For man can be no 
more a light to his mind, than he is to his body : he 
has the capacity of seeing objects when he has the 
help of light, but cannot be a light to himself, by 
which to see them. Wherefore as the sun in the 
firmament is the light of the body, and gives us dis- 
cerning in our temporal affairs ; so the life of the word 
is the glorious light and sun of the soul : our intellec- 
tual luminary y that informs our mind, and gives us 
true judgment and distinction about those things that 
more immediately concern our better, inward and 
eternal man. 

§ 3. But others will have this text read thus, not 
that the word enlightens all mankind, hut that all 
who are enlightenedy are enlightened hy him, thereby 
not only narrowing and abusing the text, but render- 
ing God partial, and so severe to his creatures, as to 
leave the greatest part of the world in darkness, with- 


out the means or opportunity of salvation ; though we 
are assured from the Scriptures that ^all have light, 
that Christ is the ^light of the world, and that he 
•died for all; yea, the ^ungodly, and that God de- 
sires not the ^death of any, but rather that all should 
repent and come to the knowledge of the truth and 
be saved; and ^at the grace of God has appeared 
to all men, &c. 

§ 4. There is a third sort that will needs have it 
understood, not of any illumination by a divine light 
or spirit in man, but by the doctrine Christ preached, 
and the life and example he lived, and led in the 
world ; and which yet neither reached the thousandth 
part of mankind, nor can consist with what the apostle 
John intends in the beginning of his history, which 
wholly relates to what Christ was before he took 
flesh, or at least, what he is to the soul, by his im- 
mediate inshinings and influences. 'Tis most true, 
Christ was, in a sense, the light of the world, in that 

(1) John i. 4, 9. In him was life ; and the life was the light of 
men. That was the true Light, which lighteth every man that Com- 
eth into the world. 

(*) Chap. viii. 12. Then spake Jesus again unto them, saying, 
I am the light of the world : he that followeth me shall not walk 
in darkness, but shall have the light of life. 

(*) Rom. V. 6. For when we were yet without strength, in due 
time, Christ died for the ungodly. 

(^) 2 Cor. V. 15. And that he died for all, that they which live, 
should not henceforth live unto themselves, but unto him which 
died for them, and rose again. 

(s) 1 Tim. ii. 4. Who wiU have aU men to be saved, and to come 
unto the knowledge of the truth. 

(6) Tit ii. 11, 12. For the grace of God, that bringeth salvation, 
hath appeared to all men, teaching us, that, denying ungodliness 
and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly, 
in this present world. 


very appearance, and shined forth by his heavenly 
doctrine^ many admirable miracles^ and his self-deny- 
ing life and death : but still that hinders not, bat 
that he was and is that spiritual lights which shineth 
more or less, in the hearts of the sons and daughters of 
men. For as he was a light in his life and conversation, 
he was only a light in a more excellent sense than he 
spoke of to his disciples, when he said. Ye are the 
lights of the world. But Christ the word enlightened 
them, and enlightens us, and enlightens all men that 
come into the world ; which he could not be said to 
do, if we only regard his personal and outward ap- 
pearance : for in that sense it is long since he was 
that light, but in this he is continually so. In that 
respect he is remote^ but in this sense he is present 
and immediate^ else we should render the text. That 
was the true light which did lighten^ instead of which 
lighteth every man that cometh into the world. And 
that the evangelist might be so understood, as we 
speak, he refers to this as an evidence of his being 
the Messiah, and not John ; for whom many people 
had much reverence, for in verse eighth he saith of 
John, Se was not that light, but was sent to hear 
witness of that light: now comes his proof and our 
testimony, that was the true light which lighteth 
every man that cometh into the world ; which was not 
John, or any else, but the word that was with GFod, 
and was Giod. 

The evangelist did not describe him by his fasting 
forty days, preaching so many sermons, working so 
many miracles, and living so holy a life ; and, after 
all, so patiently suffering death, (which yet Christ 
did) thereby to prove him the light of the world ; but, 
says the evangelist. That was the true lights the word 


in flesh, the Messiah, and not John, or any else, which 
lighteth every man that cometh into the world. So 
that Christ is manifested and distinguished by giving 
light : and indeed so are all his followers from other 
people, by receiving and obeying it. There are many 
other Scriptures, of both Testaments, that refer to the 
light within ; either expressly, or implicitly; which, for 
brevity's sake, I shall waive reciting ; but the reader 
will find some directions in the margin, which will 
guide him to them. 

The Scriptures referred to are as follows. 

Job xviii. 5, 6. Yea, the light of the wicked shall be 
put out, and the spark of his fire shall not shine. The 
light shall be dark in his tabernacle, and his candle 
shall "be put out with him. 

Chap. xxi. 17. How oft is the candle of the wicked 
put out ? and how oft cometh their destruction upon 
them ? God distributeth sorrows in his anger. 

Chap. XXV. 3. Is there any number of his armies ? 
and upon whom doth not his light arise. 

Chap, xxxviii. 15. And from the wicked their light 
is withholden, and the high arm shall be broken. 

Psalm xviii. 28. For thou wilt light my candle : 
the Lord my God will lighten my darkness. 

Psalm xxvii. 1. The Lord is my light and my sal- 
vation ; whom shall I fear ? The Lord is the strength 
of my life , of whom shall I be afraid ? 

Psalm xxxiv. 5. They looked unto him, and were 
lightened : and their faces were not ashamed. 

Psalm xxxvi. 9. For with thee is the fountain of 
life : in thy light shall we see light. 

Psalm cxviii. 27. God is the Lord, which hath 
showed us light : bind the sacrifice with cords, even 
unto the horns of the altar. 


Psalm cxix. 105. Thy word i^ a lamp unto my feet, 
and a light unto my path. 

Prov. xiii. 9. The light of the righteous rejoiceth: 
but the lamp of the wicked shall be put out. 

Prov. XX. 20, 27. Whoso curseth his fathdr or his 
mother, his lamp shall be put out in obscure darkness. 
The spirit of man is the candle of the Lord, search- 
ing all the inward parts of the belly. 

Prov. xxiv. 20. For there shall be no reward to the 
evil man ; the candle of the wicked shall be put out. 

Isa. ii. 5. house of Jacob, come ye, and let us 
walk in the light of the Lord. 

Isa. viii. 20. To the law and to the testimony : if 
they speak not according to this word, it is because 
there is no light in them. 

Isa. xlii. 6. I the Lord have called thee in right- 
eousness, and will hold thine hand, and will keep thee, 
and give thee for a covenant of the people, for a light 
of the Gentiles : 

Isa. xlix. 6. And he said, It is a light thing that 
thou shouldst be my servant, to raise up the tribes 
of Jacob, and to restore the preserved of Israel : I 
will also give thee for a light to the Gentiles, that 
thou mayest be my salvation unto the end of the 

1 Peter ii. 9. But ye are a chosen generation, a 
royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people ; 
that ye should shew forth the praises of him who 
hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous 
light : ~ 

1 John ii. 8. Again, a new commandment I write 
unto you, which thing is true in him, and in you ; 
because the darkness is past, and the true light now 




2 1. The virtue of the light within ; it gives eUteeming, { 2. It mani- 
fests God. 1 3. It gives life to the soul, i^. Itis the apostolic 
message. 2^. Objection answered about two lights. 2^. About 
natural and spiritual light: not two darknesses withm, therefore not 
two lights within. J 7. The Apostle John answers the objection fuUy : 
the light the same, 1 John ii. 8, 9. Again, a new commandment 
I write nnto you, wlxich thing is true in him, and in you ; be- 
cause the darkness is past, and the true light now shineth. He 
that saith he is in the light, and hateth his brother, is in dark- 
ness even until now 

§ 1. The third thing, is the virtue and efficacy of 
this light for the end for which God hath given it, 
viz. To lead and guide the soul of man to blessed- 
ness. In order to which, the first thing it does in 
and for man, is to give him a true sight or discerning 
of himself: what he is, and what he does ; that he may 
see and know his own condition, and what judgment to 

f make of himself, with respect to religion and a future 

state : of which, let us hear what the word himself 
saith, that cannot err, as John relates it, chap. iii. 
20, 21. " For every one that doeth evil, hateth the 

\ light, neither cometh to the light, lest his deeds should 
be reproved. But he that doth truth cometh to the 

S light, that his deeds may be made manifest, that they 
are wrought in God." 

A most pregnant instance of the virtue and author- 
ity of the light. Firsts it is that which men ought 
to examine themselves by. Secondly^ it gives a true 



discerning betwixt good and bad, what is of Godj 
from what is not of GFod. And, lastly j it is a judge, 
and condemneth or acquitteth, reproveth or comforteth, 
the soul of man, as he rejects or obeys it. That must 
needs be divine and efficacious^ which is able to disco- 
ver to man, what is of God, from what is not of God ; 
and which gives him a distinct knowledge, in himself, 
of what is wrought in God, from what is not wrought 
in God. By which it appears, that this place does not 
only regard the discovery of man and his works, but, 
in some measure, it manifesteth &od, and his works 
alsoj which is yet something higher ; forasmuch as it 
gives the obedient man a discovery of what is wrought 
or performed by God's power, and after his will, 
from what is the mere workings of the creature of 

If it could not manifest God, it could not tell man 
what was God's mind, nor give him such a grounded 
sense and discerning of the rise, nature, and tendency 
of the workings of his mind or inward man, as is 
both expressed and abundantly implied in this pas- 
sage of our Saviour. And if it reveals God, to-be- 
sure it manifests Christ, that flows and comes from God. 
Who then would oppose or slight this blessed light ? 

§ 2. But that this light doth manifest God, is yet 
evident from Rom. i, 19. Because that which may 
be known of God, is manifest in them : for God hath 
showed it unto them. An universal proposition ; and 
we have the apostle's word for it, who was one of a 
thousand, and inspired on purpose to tell us the truth : 
let it then have its due weight with us. If that which 
may be known of God is manifest in men, the people 
called Quakers cannot, certainly, be out of the way in 
preaching up the light within, without which, nothing 


can be manifested to the mind of man ; as saith the 
same apostle to the Uphesians, Eph. v. 18. 

But all things that are reproved, are made mani- 
fest by the light : for whatsoever doth make manifest, 
is light. Well then may they call this light within a 
manifestation or appearance of God, that sheweth in 
and to man, all that may be known of God. A pas- 
sage mnch like unto this, is that of the Prophet Micahy 
chap. vi. 8. God hath shewed thee, man, what is 
good ; and what doth the Lord require of thee, but to 
do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly 
with thy God ? God hath shewed thee, man ! It 
is very emphatical. But how hath He shewed him ? 
Why by his light in the conacienee, which the wicked 
rebel against, Job xxiv. 13. Who, for that cause, 
know not the ways thereof, nor abide in the patJis 
thereof: For its ways are ways of pleasantness, and 
all its paths are peace, to them that obey it. 

§ 8. But the light giveth the light of life, which is 
eternal life to* them that receive and obey it. Thus, 
says the blessed Saviour of the world, John viii. 12. 
J am the light of the world, he that followeth me shall 
not abide in darkness, but shall have the light of life. 
Now he is the light of the world, because he lighteth 
every man that cometh into the world, and they that 
obey that light obey him, and therefore have the light 
of life. That is, the light becomes eternal life to the 
soul : that as it is the life of the word, which is the 
light in man, so it becomes the life in man, through 
his obedience to it, as his heavenly light, 

§ 4. Furthermore, this light was the very ground 
of the apostolic message, as the beloved disciple as- 
sures us, 1 John i. 5, 6, 7. This then is the message 
which we have heard of him, and declare unto you^ 



that Q-od is lights and in him is no darkness at all. 
If we say that we have fellowship with him, and walk 
in darkness^ we lie^ and do not the truth : but if we 
walk in the lights as he is in the lights we have fellow- 
ship one with another^ and the blood of Jesus Christ 
his Son cleanseih unfrom all sin. Which is so com- 
prehensive of the virtue and excellency of the light, 
in reference to man, that there is little need that 
more should be said upon it ; forasmuch as, firsts it 
reveals God, and that God himself is light. Secondly, 
it discovers darkness from light, and that there is no 
fellowship between them. Thirdly, that man ought to 
walk in the light. Fourthly, that it is the way to obtain 
forgiveness of sin and sanctification from it. Fifthly j 
that it is the means to have peace and fellowship with 
God and his people ; his true church, redeemed from 
the pollutions of the world. 

§ 5. Some, perhaps, may object, as indeed it hath 
been more than once objected upon us. That this is 
another light, not that light wherewith every man is 
enlightened. But the same apostle, in his evangelical 
history, tells us, that in the word was life, and the 
life was the light of men, and that that very light, was 
the life of the word, was the true light which lighteth 
every man that cometh into the world, John i. 4, 9. 
In him was life ; and the life was the light of men. 
That was the true light, which lighteth every man 
that cometh into the ^vorld. Where is there so plain 
21 text to be found against the sufficiency, as well 
as universality of the light within ; or a plainer for 
any article of faith in the whole book of God ? Had 
the beloved disciple intended two lights, in his evan- 
gelical history, and his epistles, to-be-sure he would 
have noted to us his distinction : but we read of none, 


and by the properties ascribed in each writing, we 
have reason to conclude he meant the same. 

§ 6. But if any shall yet object, That this is to be 
understood a spiritual lights and that ours is to be a 
natural one, I shall desire them to do two things: 
J^irsty to prove that a natural light, as they phrase 
it, doth manifest God, other than as I have before ex- 
plained and allowed ; since whatever is part of man, in 
his constitution, but especially in his degeneracy from 
God, is so far from yielding him the knowledge of 
God, that it cannot rightly reprove or discover that 
which o£fends him, without the light we speak of: and 
it is granted, that what we call divine^ and some, mis- 
takingly, call natural light, can do both. Secondly ^ 
if this light be natural^ notwithstanding it doth ma- 
nifest our duty, and reprove our disobedience to God, 
they would do well to assign us some certain medium^ 
or way, whereby we may truly discern and distinguish 
between the manifestations and reproofs of the natU' 
ral light within, from those of the divine light within, 
since they allow the manifestation of God, and reproof 
of evil, as well to the one, as to the other. Let them 
give us but one Scripture that distinguishes between 
a natural and a spiritual light within. They may, 
with as much reason, talk of a natural and spiritual 
darkness within. It is true, there is a natural pro- 
per darkness, to wit, the night of the outward world ; 
and there is a spiritual darkness, viz. the clouded 
and benighted understandings of men, through dis- 
obedience to the light and spirit of God: but let 
them assign us a third, if they can. People use, in- 
deed, to say, improperly, of blind men, they are darh^ 
we may call a natural or idiot so, if we will ; but 
where is there another darkness of the understanding, { 


in the things of God ? If they can, I say, find that, 
in and about the things of God, they do something. 

Christ distinguished not between darkness and 
darkness, or light and light, in any such sense ; nor did 
any of his disciples : yet both have frequently spoken 
of darkness and light. What difference, pray, doth 
the Scriptures put between spiritual darkness and 
darkness mentioned in these places, 

Luke i. 79. To give light to them that sit in dark^ 
ness and in the shadow of death, to guide our feet into 
the way of peace. 

Mat. iv. 16. The people which sat in darkness, saw 
great light ; and to them which sat in the region and 
shadow of death, light is sprung up. 

John i. 5. And the light shineth in darkness ; and 
the darkness comprehended it not. 

John iii. 19. And this is the condemnation, that 
light is come into the world, and men loved darkness 
rather than light, because their deeds were evil. 

John viii. 12, 31, 46. Then spake Jesus again unto 
them, saying, I am the light of the world : he that 
foUoweth me shall not walk in darkness, but shall 
have the light of life. Then said Jesus to those Jews 
which believed on him. If ye continue in my word, 
then are ye my disciples indeed ; which of you con- 
vinceth me of sin ? And if I say the truth, why do 
ye not believe on me ? 

1 Thes. V. 4. But ye, brethren, are not in dark- 
ness, that that day should overtake you as a thief. 

1 John i. 6. If we say that we have fellowship 
with him, and walk in darkness, we lie, and do not 
the truth. 

Acts xxvi. 18. To open their eyes, and to turn 
them from darkness to light, and from the power of 


Satan unto God, that they may receive forgiveness 
of sins, and inheritance among them which are sanc- 
tified by faith that is in me. 

Rom. xiii. 12. The night is far spent, the day is 
at hand : let us, therefore, cast off the works of dark- 
ness, and let us put on the armour of light. 

2 Cor. vi. 14. Be ye not unequally yoked together 
with unbelievers ; for what fellowship hath righteous- 
ness with unrighteousness ? and what communion hath 
light with darkness ? 

Eph. V. 8. For ye were sometimes darkness, but 
now are ye light in the Lord : walk as children of the 
light : 

Col. i. 13. Who hath delivered us from the power 
of darkness, and hath translated us into the kingdom 
of his dear Son; 

Upon the strictest comparison of them I find none. 
It is all one spiritual darkness. Neither is there so 
much as one Scripture that affords us a distinction 
between light within and light within; or that there ' 
are really two lights from God, in man, that regard 
religion. Peruse Mat. iv. 16. The people which sat 
in darkness, saw great light ; and to them which sat 
in the region and shadow of death, light is sprung up. 

Luke ii. 32. A light to lighten the Gentiles, and 
the glory of thy people Israel. 

Luke XV. 8. Either what woman, having ten pieces 
of silver, if she lose one piece, doth not light a can- 
dle, and sweep the house, and seek diligently, till she 
find it ? 

John i. 4, 5, 7, 8, 9. In him was life ; and the life 
was the light of men. And the light shineth in dark- 
ness ; and the darkness comprehended it not. There 
was a man sent from God, whose name was John. 



The same came for a witness, to bear witness of the 
light, that all men through him might believe. He 
was not that light, but was sent to bear witness of 
that light. That was the true light, which lighteth 
every man that cometh into the world. 

Chap. iii. 19, 20, 21. And this is the condemna- 
tion, that light is come into the world, and men loved 
darkness rather than light, because their deeds were 
evil. For every one that doeth evil, hateth the light, 
neither cometh to the light, lest his deeds should 
be reproved. But he that doeth truth, cometh to the 
light, that his deeds may be made manifest that they 
are wrought in God. 

Chap. viii. 12. Then spake Jesus again unto them, 
saying, I am the light of the world ; he that foUow- 
eth me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the 
light of life. 

Acts xxvi. 18. To open their eyes, and to turn 
them from darkness to light, and from the power of 
Satan unto God, that they may receive forgiveness 
of sins, and inheritance among them which are sanc- 
tified by faith that is in me. 

Bom. xiii. 12. The night is far spent, the day is at 
hand : let us, therefore, cast off the works of dark- 
ness, and let us put on the armour of light. 

2 Cor. iv. 6, For God, who commanded the light 
to shine out of darkness, hath shined in our hearts, to 
give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God 
in the face of Jesus Christ. 

Chap. vi. 14. Be ye not unequally yoked together 
with unbelievers ; for what fellowship hath righteous- 
ness with unrighteousness ? and what communion hath 
light with darkness ? 

Eph. V. 8, 13. For ye were sometimes* darkness^ but 




f now are ye light in the Lord: walk as children ( 

light. Bat all things that are reproved^ are mai 
manifest by the light; for whatsoever doth mal 
manifest, is light. 

Col. i. 12. Giving thanks unto the Father, whi< 
hath made ns meet to be partakers of the inheritan 
i| of the saints in light ; 

\ 1 Thes. V. 5. Ye are all the children of light, ai 

f the children of the day : we are not of the night n 

W of darkness. 

\ 1 Tim. vi. 16. Who only hath immortality, dwe' 

r ing in the light which no man can approach nnt 

^ whom no man hath seen, nor can see : to whom ] 

. honour and power everlasting. Amen. 

1 Pet. ii. 9. But ye are a chosen generation, 

^ royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar peopL 

that ye should show forth the praises of him who ha 

called you out of darkness into his marvellous lighi 

^ - 1 John i. 5, 7. This then is the message whi( 

V we have heard of him, and declare unto you, th 
God is light, and in him is no darkness at all. B 
if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we ha 
fellowship one with another ; and the blood of Jes 

I Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin. 

V Chap. ii. 8. Again, a new commandment I wri 
unto you, which thing is true in him, and in you ; I 
cause the darkness is past, and the true light nc 

B^v. xxi. 23, 24. And the city had no need of t 
sun, neither of the moon, to shine in it : for the glo 
of God did lighten it, and the Lamb is the lig 
thereof. And the nations of them which are save 
shall walk in the light of it ; and the kings of i 
earth do bring their glory and honour into it. 




Chap. xxii. 5. And there shall be no night there: 
and they need no candle, neither light of the snn; 
for the Lord God giveth them light ; and they shall 
reign forever and ever. 

And we believe the greatest opposer, to our asser- 
tion, will not be able to sever light from light, or find 
out two lights within^ in the passages here mentioned, 
or any other, to direct man in his duty to Qod and 
his neighbour : and if he cannot, pray let him for- 
bear his mean thoughts and words of the light of 
Christ within man^ as man's guide in duty to God 
and man. For as he must yield to us, that the light 
manifesteth evil, and reproveth for it, so doth Christ 
himself teach us of the light, John iii. 20. For every 
one that doth evil hateth the light, neither cometh 
unto the light, lest his deeds should be reproved. 
And the Apostle Paul plainly saith, Eph. v. 18. But 
all things that are reproved are made manifest by the 
light ; therefore there are not two distinct lights 
within, but one and the same manifesting^ reproving^ 
and teaching light within. And this the Apostle 
John^ in his first epistle, makes plain, beyond all ex- 
ception, to all considerate people : First, in that he 
calls God, lights chap. i. 5 : This then is the message 
which we have heard of him, and declare unto you, 
that God is light, and in him is no darkness at all. 
Secondly, in that he puts no medium or third thing 
between that lighty and darkness^ verse 6. If we say 
we have fellowship with him^ and walk in darkness^ 
we lie, &c. Intimating, that men must walk either in 
light or darkness^ and not in a thirds or other state or 
region. I am sure, that which manifests and reproves 
darkness, cannot he darkness. This all men must 


§ 7. And, as if the Apostle John would have an- 
ticipated their objection, viz. 'Tib trvs^ your light 
within reproves for evil, but it is not therefore the 
Divine Light which leads into higher things, and 
which comes by the gospel; he thus expresseth him- 
self, 1 John ii. 8, 9 : The darkness is past, and the 
true Light now shineth. Me that saith he is in the 
light, and hateth his brother, is in darkness even 
until now; which is not another light than that men- 
tioned before, chap. i. For as light is put there, in 
opposition to darkness, so light here, is put in oppo- 
sition to darkness. And as the darkness is the 
same, so must the light be the same. Wherefore we 
may plainly see, that it is not another light,- than 
that which reproves a man for hating his brother, 
which brings a man into fellowship with God, and to 
the blood of cleansing, as the next verse speaks: 
therefore that Light which reproveth a man for hating 
his brother, is of a divine and efficacious nature. In 
short, that light which is opposite to, and reproves 
spiritual darkness, in a man and woman, is a spiritual 
Light; but such a Light is that which we confess, 
testify to, and maintain : therefore it is a spiritual 
Light, It is also worth our notice, that the apostle 
useth the same manner of expression here, chap. ii. 8, 
The true Light shineth, that he doth in his Evange- 
lical History, chap. i. 9: That was the true Light; 
intimating the same divine Word, or true Light now 
shineth ; and that it is the same true Light in his ac- 
count, thait reproveth such as hate their brethren: 
consequently, that Light that so reproveth them is 
the true Light. And strange it is, that Christ and 
his disciples, but especially his beloved one, should 
80 often make that very light, which stoops to the 


lofcest step of immorality, and to the reproof of the 
grosseH evil, to be no other than the same divine 
lighty in a farther degree of manifestation, ^hich 
brings such as follow it to the Light of Life, to tho 
blood of cleamingj and to have fellowship with Q-odj 
and one with another: Nay, not only so, but the 
apostle makes a man's being a child of Crody to de- 
pend upon his answering of this light in a palpable 
and common case, viz. Not Jutting of his brother: 
and that yet any should shut their eyes so fast against 
beholding the virtue of it, as to conclude it a natural 
and insufficient light, is both unscriptural and un- 
reasonable. Shall we slight it, because we come so 
easily by it, and it is so familiar and domestic to us ? 
Or make its being so common an argument to under- 
value so inestimable a mercy? What is more common 
than lighty and atr, and water f And should we 
therefore contemn them, or prize them ? Prize them, 
certainly, as what we cannot live, nor live comfortably 
without. The more general the mercy is, the greater, 
and therefore the greater obligation upon man to live 
humbly and thankfully for it. And to those alone 
that do so, are its divine secrets revealed. 



{ 1. Ths Light the tanu with the Spirit It it of Ood; proved by it$ 
propertiee. { 2. The properties of the Spirit compared with thoee 
of the Light, 2 8. The Light and Grace flow from the tame prin-- 
e^le, proved by their agreeing propertiee. { 4. An objection an- 
swered. 2 5. Difference in manifestation, or operation^ especially 
in Gospel times, but not in principle, illustrated, 

§ 1. But some may say, We could willingly allow 
to the Spirit and grace of Q-odj which seemed to be 
the peculiar blessing of the new and second cove- 
nantj and the fruit of the coming of Christy all that 
which you ascribe to the light within ; but except it 
appeared to us that this Yi^^^were the same in nature 
with the Spirit and grace of God, we cannot easily 
bring ourselves to believe what you say in favour of 
the light within, 

Answ. This objection, at first look, seems to carry 
weight with it : but upon a just and serious review, it 
will appear to have more words than matter, show 
than substance : yet because it gives occasion to solve 
scruples, that may be flung in the way of the simple, 
I shall attend it throughout. I say, then, if it ap- 
pear that the properties ascribed to the light within 
are the same with those that are given to the Holy 
Spirit and grace of God* and that those several 
terms or epithets, are only to express the divers 
manifestations or operations of one and the same 
principle, then it will not, it cannot be denied, but 


this light within, is divine and efficcunotiSj as we have 
asserted it. Now, that it is of the same nature with 
the Spirit and grace of Grod, and tends to the same 
end, which is to bring people to God, let the pro- 
perties of the light be compared with those of the 
Spirit and grace of God. I say, they are the same, 
in that, Firgty The light proceeds from the One Wordj 
and One Life of that One Ward, which was with God 
and was Gt>d. John i. 4 : In him was life ; and the 
life was the light of men. And John i. 9 : That was 
the true Light, which lighteth every man that cometh 
into the world. Secondly, It is universaly it lighteth 
every man. Thirdly, It giveth the knowledge of Q-od 
and fellowship with him. Bom. i. 19 : Because that 
which may be known of God is manifest in them ; for 
God hath shewed it unto them. John iii. 21 : But he 
that doeth truth cometh to the light, that his deeds 
may be made manifest, that they are wrought in God. 
1 John i. 5, 6 : This then is the message which we 
have heard of him, and declare unto you, that God is 
light, and in him is no darkness at all. If we say that 
we have fellowship with him, and walk in darkness, 
we lie, and do not the truth. Fourthly, It manifesteth 
and reproveth evil, John iii. 20 : For every one that 
doeth evil hateth the light, neither cometh to the 
light, lest his deeds should be reproved. Eph. v. 13 : 
But all things that are reproved are made manifest 
by the light : for whatsoever doth make manifest is 
light. Fifthly, It is made the rule and guide of 
Christian walking, Psalm xliii. 3 : send out thy 
light and thy truth: let them lead me; let them bring 
me unto thy holy hill, and to thy tabernacles. John 
viii. 12 : Then spake Jesus again unto them, saying, 
I am the light of the world : he that followeth me 


shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light 
of life. Eph. V. 13, 15 : But all things that are re- 
proved are made manifest by the light : for whatso- 
ever doth make manifest is light. Wherefore he 
saith, Awake thou that sleepest, and arise from the 
dead, and Christ shall give thee light. See then that 
ye walk circumspectly, not as fools, but as wise. 
Sixthly^ It is the path for God's people to go in, 
Psalm cxix. 105 : Thy word is a lamp unto my feet, 
and a light unto my path. Prov. iv. 18 : But the path 
of the just is as the shining light, that shineth more 
and more unto the perfect day. Isa. ii. 5 : house 
cf Jacob, come ye, and let us walk in the light of the 
Lord. 1 John i. 7 : But if we walk in the light, as 
he is in the light, we have fellowship one with an- 
other, and the blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanSeth 
us from all sin. Bev. xxi. 24 : And the nations of 
them which are saved, shall walk in the light of it : 
and the kings of the earth do bring their glory and 
honour into it. And the nations of them that are 
saved, shall walk in the light (of the Lamb.) 
Lastly^ It is the armour of the children of God 
against Satan, Psalm xxvii. 1 : The Lord is my light 
and my salvation ; whom shall I fear ? The Lord is 
the strength of my life; of whom shall I be afraid? 
llom. xiii. 12 : The night is far spent, the day is at 
hand: let us therefore cast oflf the works of dark- 
ness, and let us put on the armour of light. 

§ 2. Now let all this be compared with ihe propertie% 
of the Holy Spirit^ and their agreement will be very 
manifest. First, It proceedeth from Q-od, because it 
is the Spirit of God, Bom. vi. 11 : Likewise reckon 
ye also yourselves to be dead indeed unto sin, but 

alive unto God through Jesus Christ our Lord.^ Se- 



condly, It is universal. It strove with the old world, 
Gen. vi. 3 : And the Lord said, My Spirit shall not 
always strive with man, for that he i^lso is flesh : yet 
his days shall be an hundred and twenty years. Then 
to be sure with the new One: Every one hath a 
measure of it given to profit withal, 1 Cor. xii. 7. 
Thirdly y It revealeth God, Job xxxii. 8 : But there is 
a spirit in man : and the inspiration of the Almighty 
giveth them understanding. 1 Cor. ii. 10, 11 : But 
God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit: For 
the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things 
of God. For what man knoweth the things of a man, 
save the spirit of man which is in him ? even so the 
thjngs of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God. 
Fourthly, It reproveth sin, John xvi. 8 : And when 
he is come, he will reprove the world of sin, and of 
righteousness, and of judgment. Fifthly, It is a rule 
and guide for the children of God to walk by, Rom. 
viii. 14 : For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, 
they are the sons of God. Sixthly, It is also the 
path they are to walk in, Rom. viii. 1 : There is there- 
fore now no condemnation to them which are in Christ 
Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after the 
Spirit. Gal. v. 16 : This I say then, walk in the Spirit, 
and ye shall not fulfil the lusts of the flesh. Walk in 
the Spirit. Lastly, This is not all ; it is likewise the 
spiritual weapon of a true Christian. Eph. vi. 17 : 
Take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the 
Spirit, which is the word of God. After this, I hope 
none will deny that this Light and this Spirit must be 
of one and the same nature, that work one and the 
same effect, and tend evidently to one and the same 
holy end, 

§ 3. And what is said of the Light and Spirit, may 


also, very well be said of the Light and Grace of God : 
in that, Fir%t^ The grace floweth from Christ, the 
Word, that took flesh, as well as the light; for as 
in him was life, and that life the light of merij so 
he was full of grace and truths and ^of his fulness 
have all we received^ and grace for grace^ John i. 4, 
9, 14, 16 : In him was life ; and the life was the light 
of men. That was the true Light, which lighteth 
every man that cometh into the world. And the 
Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we 
beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten 
of the Father,) full of grace and truth. And of his 
fulness have all we received, and grace for grace. 

Secondly, It is universal; both from this text, and 
what the apostle to Titus teacheth: For the grace 
of God that bringeth salvation, hath appeared to all 
men. Teaching us, that, denying ungodliness and 
worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and 
godly, in this present world, Titus ii. 11, 12. Thirdly, 
It manifesteth evil, for if it teaches to deny ungodli- 
ness and worldly lusts, it must needs detect them, and 
80 says the text. Fourthly, It revealeth godliness, 
and consequently it must manifest God. Fifthly, it 
is an instructor and Guide; for, says the apostle. 
It teaches to deny ungodliness and worldly lusts, and 
to live soberly, righteously, and godly in this present 
world, and herein a rule of life, Tit. ii. 11, 12. 
Sixthly, It is to all that receive it, all that they can 
need or desire. 2 Cor. xii. 9 : And he said unto me, 
My grace is sufficient for thee : for my strength is 
made perfect in weakness. Most gladly therefore will 
I rather glory in my infirmities, that the power of 
Christ may rest upon me. An high testimony from 


Heaven, to the power of this teaching and saving 
graccy under the strongest temptations. 

§ 4. Obj. But there is little mention made of the 
Spirit, and none of the Grace, before Christ*s coming, 
and therefore the Spirit, as spoken of in the writings 
of the New Testament, and especially the Grace, must 
be another, and a nobler thing than the light within. 
Answ. By no means another thing, but another 
name, from another manifestation or operation, of 
the same principle. It is called light from the dis- 
tinction and discerning it gives. Let there be light, 
and there was light, said God in the beginning of the 
world ; so there is first Light in the beginning of the 
new creation of God in man. It is called Spirit^ be- 
cause it giveth life, sense, motion and vigour: and it 
is as often mentioned in the writings of the Old as 
New Testament; which every reader may see, if he 
will but please to look into his Scripture Concordance. 
Thus God's Spirit strove with the old world, Gen. 
vi. 3 : And the Lord said. My Spirit shall not always 
strive with man, for that he also is flesh : yet his days 
shall be an hundred and twenty years. And with 
Israel in the wilderness, Neh. ix. 30: Yet many years 
didst thou forbear them, and testifiedst against them 
by thy Spirit in thy prophets: yet would they not 
give ear : therefore gavest thou them into the hand 
of the people of the lands. And David asked, in the 
agony of his soul, Psalm cxxxix. 7, Whither shall 
I go from thy Spirit ? Or whither shall I flee from 
thy presence? And the prophets often felt it. It is 
styled grace, not from its being another principle, 
but because it was a fuller dispensation of the virtue 
and power of the same divine principle: and that 
being purely God's favour and mercy, and not man's 


merit, is aptly, and deservedly called the grace, fa- 
vour, or good-will of Grod to undeserving man. The 
wind does not always blow fresh, nor heaven send 
down its rain freely, nor the sun shine forth clearly; 
■jhall we therefore say, it is not of the same kind of 
wind, rain, or light, when it blows, rains, or shines 
but a little, as when it blows, rains, or shines much ? 
It is certainly the same in nature and kind ; and so 
is this blessed principle, under all its several dispen- 
sations, manifestations and operations, for the benefit 
of man's soul, ever since the world began. 

§ 6. But this is most freely, humbly and thankfully 
acknowledged by us, that the dispensation of the Gos- 
pel was the clearest, fullest, and noblest of all other, 
both with regard to the coming of Christ in the flesh, 
and being our one holy oflfering to God for sin, 
through the eternal Spirit ; and the breaking forth of 
his light, the effusion of his Spirit, and appearance 
of his grace in, and to man, in a more excellent 
manner, after his ascension. For though it was not 
another Light, or Spirit, than that which he had given 
to man in former ages, yet it was another and greater 
measure; and that is the privilege of the gospel 
above former dispensations. What before shined but 
dimly, shines since with great glory. 2 Cor. iii. 18 : 
But we all, with open face beholding as in a glass 
the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same 
image from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of 
the Lord. Then it appeared but darkly, but now with 
open face. Types, figures and shadows vailed its 
appearances and made them look low and faint ; but 
in the gospel time, the vail is rent, and the hidden 
glory manifest. John i. 6, 17 : And the Light shineth 
in darkness ; and the darkness comprehended it not, 



For the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth 
came by Jesus Christ.*' It was under the law but as 
a dew, or small rain, but under the gospel, it may be 
said to be poured out upon men ; according to that 
gracious and notable promise of God, by the prophet 
Joel, chap. ii. 28 : << And it shall come to pass after- 
ward, that I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh; 
and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, 
your old men shall dream dreams, your young men 
shall see visions." Thus we say when it rains plenti- 
fully, look how it pours, so God augments his light, 
grace, and Spirit to these latter days. They shall 
not have it sparingly, and by small drops, but fully 
and freely^ and overflowing too. And thus JPeteVy 
that deep and excellent apostle, applies that promise 
in Joel, on the day of Pentecost, as the beginning of 
the accomplishment of it. This is grace, and fa- 
vour, and goodness indeed. And therefore well may 
this brighter illumination, and greater effusion of 
the Spirit, be called grace; for as the coming of the 
Son excelled that of the servant, so did the mani- 
festation of the light and Spirit of God, since the 
coming of Christ, excel that of the foregoing dispen- 
sations ; yet ever sufficient to salvation, to all those 
that walked in it. This is our sense of the light, 
Spirit, and grace of God: and by what is said, it is 
evident they are one and the same principle, and that 
he that has light, need not want the Spirit or grace 
of God, if he will but receive it, in the love of it : 
for the very principle, that is light to show him, is 
also spirit to quicken him^ and grace to teach, help, 
and comfort him. It is sufficient in all circumstances 
of life, to them that diligently mind and obey it. 



{ 1. An Objection answered : All are not GK>od, though all are lighted. 
{ 2. Another Objection answered, That Gospel truths were known 
before Christ's Coming. { 8. Another: The Gentiles had the 
same Light, though not with those Advantages: Proved bj 

§ 1. But some may yet say^ If it he as you declare^ 
how comes it, that all who are enlightened^ are not so 
good as they should be ; or, as you say, this would 
make them ? 

Answ. Because people don't receive and obey it: 
all men have reason, but all men are not reasonable. 
Is it the fault of the grain, in the granary, that it 
yields no increase, or of the talent in the napkin, that 
it is not improved ? It is plain a talent was given ; and 
as plain that it was improveable ; both because the like 
talents were actually improved by others, and, that 
the Just Judge expected his talent with advantage ; 
which else, to be sure, he would never have done. 
Now when our objectors will tell us, whose fault it 
was the talent was not improved, we shall be ready to 
tell them, why the unprofitable servant was not so 
good as he should have been. The blind must not 
blame the sun, nor sinners tax the grace of insuffi- 
ciency. It is sin that darkens the eye, and hardens 
the heart, and that hinders good things from the sons 
of men. If we do his will, we shall know of his divine 
doctrine, so Christ tells us. Men not living to what 
they know, cannot blame God, that they know no 


more. The unfrnitfalness is in us, not in the talent 
'Twcre well indeed, that this were laid to heart. But, 
alas ! men are too apt to follow their sensual appe- 
tites, rather than their reasonable mind, which renders 
them brutal instead of rational. For the reasonable 
part in man, is his spiritual part, and that guided by 
the divine Logos, or Word, which TertuUian interprets 
reason in the most excellent sense, makes man truly 
reasonable; and then it is that man comes to offer up 
himself to Grod a reasonable sacrifice. Then a man 
indeed; a complete man; such a man as God made, 
when he made man in his own image, and gave him 
Paradise for his habitation. 

§ 2. Obj. But some yet object, If mankind had 
always this principle, how comes it that gospel-truths 
were not so fully known before the coming of Christ, 
to those that were obedient to it. 

Answ. Because a child is not a grown man, nor 
the beginning the end; and yet he that is the be- 
ginning, is also the end: the principle is the same, 
though not the manifestation. As the world has many 
steps and periods of time towards its end, so hath 
man to his perfection. They that are faithful to what 
they know of the dispensation of their own day, shall 
hear the happy welcome, of Well done, good and faith- 
ful servant. And yet many of God*s people in those 
days, had a prospect of the glory of the latter times, 
the improvement of religion, the happiness of the 
church of God. 

This we see in the prophecy of Jacob and Moses, con- 
cerning the restoration of Israel by Christ. Gen. xlix. 
10: <'The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor 
a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come ; 
and unto him shall the gathering of the people be.'* 


Deut. xviii. 15, 18. " The Lord thy God will raise 
up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of thee, of thy 
brethren, like unto me ; unto him ye shall hearken. 
I will raise them up a Prophet from among their 
brethren, like unto thee, and will put my words in his 
mouth ; and he shall speak unto them all that I shall 
command him/' 

So David, in many of his excellent PsalmSy ex- 
pressing most sensible and extraordinary enjoyments, 
as well as Prophecies; particularly his 2, 15, 18, 22, 
23, 26, 27, 32, 36, 37, 42, 43, 45, 51, 84, &c. The 
Prophets are full of it, and for that reason have their 
name ; particularly Isaiah, chap. 2, 9, 11, 25, 28, 32, 
85, 42, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 59, 60, 61, 63, 65, 66. 
Jeremiah also, chap. 23, 30, 31, 33. Ezekiel, chap. 
20, 34, 36, 37. Daniel, chap. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. 
JSosea, chap. 1, 3. Joel, chap. 2, 3. Amos, chap. 9. 
Micah, chap. 4, 5. Zaehariah, chap. 6, 8, 9, 11, 13, 
14. Malachi, chap. 3, 4. This was not another 
principle, though another manifestation of the same 
principle, nor was it common, but particular and ex- 
traordinary in the reason of it. 

It was the same Spirit that came upon Moses, which 
came upon John the Baptist, and it was also the same 
Spirit that came upon Chideon and Samson, that fell 
upon Peter and Paul; but it was not the same dis- 
pensation of that Spirit. It hath been the way of 
God, to visit and appear to men, according to their 
states and conditions, and as they have been prepared 
to receive him, be it more outwardly or inwardly, 
sensibly or spiritually. There is no capacity too low, 
or too high, for this divine principle : for as it made 
and knows all, so it reaches unto all people. It ex- 
tends to the meanest, and the highest cannot subsist 


without it. Which made David break forth in his 
expostulations with God, Psalm cxxxix. 7, 8, 9, 10. 
"Whither shall I go from thy Spirit? or whither shall 
I flee from thy presence ? If I ascend up into hea- 
ven, thou art there : if I make my bed in hell, behold, 
thou art there. If I take the wings of the morning, 
and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea; even 
there shall thy hand lead me, and thy right hand shall 
hold me.'* Implying it was everywhere, though not 
everywhere, not at every time alike. If I go to 
heaven, to hell, or beyond the seas, even there shall 
thy hand lead me, and thy right hand shall hold me. 
That is, there will this divine Word, this Light of 
men, this Spirit of God, find me, lead me, help me, 
and comfort me. For it is with me wherever I am, 
and wherever I go, in one respect or other ; Prov. 
vi. 22 : " When thou goest, it shall lead thee ; when 
thou sleepeat^ it shall keep thee; and when thou 
awakesty it shall talk with thee:'' and I can no more 
get rid of it, if I would, than of myself, or my own 
nature ; so present is it with me, and so close it sticks 
unto me. Isa. xliii. 2 : . « When thou passeat through 
the waters, I will be with thee; and through the rivers, 
they shall not overflow thee : when thou walkest through 
the fire, thou shalt not he burnt; neither shall the flame 
kindle upon thee.'' David knew it, and therefore had a 
great value for it. "iii thy light shall we see light," 
or we shall be enlightened by thy light. ^^Thou wilt 
light my candle ; the Lord my Q-od will lighten my 
darkness," Again, ^^The Lord is my Light, whom 
shall I fear" It was his armour against all danger. 
It took fear away from him, and he was undaunted, 
because he was safe in the way of it. Of the same 
blessed word he says elsewhere, "Jj5 is a lamp unto 


my feet^ and a lanthom to my paths.*' In short, a 
light to him in his way to blessedness. 

• I 3. Obj. But if the Jews had this lights it does 
not follow that the Q-entiles had it also; hut by your 
doctrine all hove it. 

Answ. Yes, and it is the glory of this doctrine 
which we profess, that Grod's love is therein held forth 
to all. And besides the texts cited in general, and 
that are as full and positive as can be expressed, the 
apostle is very particular in the second chapter of 
his Epistle to the Romans, verse 7 : "To them who^ hy 
patient continuance in well doing ^ seek for glory, and 
honour, and immortality, eternal life : 8. But unto 
them that are contentious, and do not obey the truth, 
but obey unrighteousness, indignation and wrath: 
9. Tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man 
that doeth evil; of the Jew first, and also of the 
Gentile : 

10. But glory, honour, and peace, to every man that 
worketh good ; to the Jew first, and also to the Gentile : 

11. For there is no respect of persons with God. 

12. For as many as have sinned without law, shall 
also perish without law ; and as many as have sinned 
in the law, shall be judged by the law ; 

13. (For not the hearers of the law are just before 
God, but the doers of the law shall be justified. 

14. For when the Gentiles, which have not the law, 
do by nature the things contained in the law, these, 
having not the law, are a law unto themselves : 

15. Which shew the work of the law written in 
their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, 
and their thoughts the meanwhile accusing or else 
excusing one another ;) 

16. In the day when God shall judge the secrets 


of men by Jesus Christ according to my gospel." 
That is, tliey had not an outward law, circamstanced 
as the Jew% had ; but they had the work of the law 
written in their hearts, and therefore might ^ell be 
a law to themselves, that had the law in themselve%* 
And so had the Jewe too, but then they had greater 
outward helps to quicken their obedience to it ; such 
as God afforded not unto any other nation : and there- 
fore the obedience of the Gentiles, or uncircumcision, 
is said to be by nature, or naturally, because it was 
without those additional, external, and extraordinary 
ministers and helps which the Jetos had to provoke 
them to duty. Which is so far from lessening the 
obedient Gentiles, that it exalts them in the apostle's 
judgment; because though they had less advantages 
than the Jews, yet the work of the law written in 
their hearts, was made so much the more evident by 
tlio good life they lived in the world. He adds, 
" their consciences bearing witness (or as it may be 
rondored, witnessing with them) and their thoughts, 
'meanwhile, accusing, or else excusing one another, 
in the day when God shall judge the secrets of all 
hearts by Jesus Christ, according to my gospel." 
Which presents us with four things to our point, and 
worth our serious reflection. First, That the Gentiles 
had the law written in their hearts. Secondly, That 
tlieir conscience was an allowed witness or evidence 
about duty. Thirdly, That the judgment made 
thereby shall bo confirmed by the apostle's gospel 
at the great day, and therefore valid and irreversible. 
Fourthly, That this could not be, if the light of this 
conscience were not a divine and sufficient light: 
for conscience truly speaking, is no other than the 
sense a man hath, or judgment he maketh of his duty 


to Qodj aecordmg to the understanding Q-od give^ 

him of his will. And that no ill, but a true and 

Bcriptnral use may be made of this word conscience^ 

I limit it to duty, and to a virtuous and holy life, 

as the apostle evidently doth, about which we cannot 

miss, or dispute ; read verses 7, 8 and 9 : «< To them 

who by patient continuance in well-doing seek for 

glory and honour and immortality, eternal life: 

bat unto them that are contentious, and do not 

obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, indignation 

and wrath, tribulation and anguish, upon every soul 

of man that doeth evil ; of the Jew first, and also 

of the Gentile." It was to that therefore the apostles 

of our Lord Jesus Christ desired to be made manifest, 

for they dared to stand the judgment of consciences 

in reference to the doctrine they preached and pressed 

upon men. The beloved disciple also makes it a judge 

of man's present and future state, under the term 

heart. 1 John iii. 20, 21 : " For if our heart condemn 

us, God is greater than our heart, and knoweth all 

things. Beloved, if our heart condemn us not, then 

have we confidence toward God." Plain and strong 

words: and what were they about, but whether we 

love God, in deed and in truth: and how must that 

appear ? Why, in keeping his commandments ^ which 

is living up to what we know. And if any desire to 

satisfy themselves farther of the divinity of the Qen- 

tiles, let them read Plato, Seneca, Plutarch, Epictetus, 

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, and the Gentile writers. 

They will also find many of their sayings, collected 

in the first part of a book, coXied The Christian Quaker, 

and compared with the testimonies of Scripture, not 

for their authority, but agreeableness. In them they 

may discern many excellent truths, and taste great 



love and devotion to virtue : a fruit that grows upon 
no tree, but that of life, in no age or nation. Some 
of the most eminent writers of the first ages, such as 
Justin Martyr^ OrigeUy Clemens AlexandrinuSy &c., 
bore them great respect, and thought it no lessening 
to the reputation of Christianity, that it was defended 
in many Cfentile authors, as well as that they used 
and urged them, to engage their followers to the 
faith, as Paul did the Athenians with their own 


2 1. An Objection answered abont the various Dispensations of God: 
The Principle the same. J 2. God's Work of a piece, and Truth 
the same under divers Shapes. J 3. The Reason of the Preva- 
lency of Idolatry. J 4. The Quaker's Testimony the best Anti- 
dote against it, viz. Walking by a divine Principle in Man. 
J 5. It was God's End in all his Manifestations, that Man might 
be God's Image and Delight. 

§ 1. Obj. But it may be said. If it were one prin- 
•ciple, why so many modes and shapes of religion, since 
the world began? For the patriarchal, Mosaical, and 
Christian, have their great dififerences ; to say nothing 
of what has befallen the Christian, since the publica- 
tion of it to the world. 

Answ. I know not how properly they may be called 
divers religions, that assert the true God for the 
object of worship; the Lord Jesus Christ, for the 
only Saviour; and the lighty or Spirit of Christ, for 
the great agent and means of man's conversion, and 
eternal felicity, any more than infancy, youth, and 
manhood, make three men, instead of three growths 


or periods of time^ of one and the same man. But 
passing that, the many modes, or ways of God's ap- 
pearing to men, arise, as hath been said, from the 
divers states of men, in all which, it seems to have 
been his main design to prevent idolatry and vice, 
by directing their minds to the true object of wor- 
ship, and pressing virtue and holiness. So that though 
mediately he spoke to the patrigirchs, mostly by 
angels, in the fashion of men, and by them to their 
families, over and above the illumination in them- 
selves ; so to the prophets, for the most part, by the 
Revelation of the Holy Ghost in them, and by them 
to the Jews ; and since the Gospel Dispensation, by 
his Son, both externally, by his coming in the fleshy 
and internally, by his spiritual appearance in the 
souly as he is the great Light of the world; yet 
all its flowings mediately through others, have still 
been from the same principle, co-operating with 
the manifestation of it immediately in man's own 

§ 2. This is of great weight, for our information 
and encouragement, that God's work, in reference 
to man, is all of a pieccy and, in itself, lies in a nar-' 
row compass, and that his eye has ever been upon the 
same thing in all his dispensations, viz. to make men 
truly goody by planting his holy awe, and fear in 
their hearts: though he has condescended, for the 
hardness and darkness of men's hearts, to approach, 
and spell out his holy mind, to them, by low and car- 
nal ways, as they may appear to our more enlightened 
understandings : suffering truth to put on divers sorts 
of garments, the better to reach to the low state of 
men, to engage them from false gods, and ill lives ; 
seeing them sunk so much below their nobler part. 


and what he made them, that, like brute beaatS| they 
knew not their own strength and excellency. 

§ 3. And if we do but well consider the reason of 
the prevalency of idolatry ^ upon the earlier and darker 
times of the world, of which the Scripture is very 
particular, Gen. xxxi. xxxv. ; Exod. xx. ; Levit. xxi. ; 
Deut. xxix. XXX. xxxi. xxxii. ; Josh. xxii. xxiii. xxiv., 
we shall find ariseth from this: That it is more 
sensual, and therefore calculated to please the %en%e% 
of men; being more outward or visible^ or more in 
their own power to perform, than one more spiritual 
in its object. For as their gods were the workman- 
ship of men*s hands, they could not prefer them, that 
being the argument which did most of all gall their 
worshippers, and what of all things, for that reason, 
they were most willing to forget. But their inoidency 
to idolatry y and the advantages it had upon the true 
religion with them, plainly came from this. That it 
was more outward and sensual: they could see the 
object of their devotion, and had it in their power to 
address it when they would. It was more fashionable 
too, as well as better accommodated to their dark and 
too brutal state. And therefore it was that God, by 
many afflictions, and greater deliverances, brought 
forth a people, to endear himself to them, that they 
might remember the hand that saved them^ and wor- 
ship him, and him only ; in order to root up idolatry ^ 
and plant the knowledge and fear of him in their 
minds, for an example to other nations. Whoever 
reads Deuteronomy, which is a summary of the other 
four books of Moses, will find the frequent and earnest 
care and concern of that good man for Israely about 
this very point ; and how often that people slipt and 
lapsed, notwithstanding God's love, care, and pa- 


tience over them, into the idolatrous customs of the 
nations about them. Divers other Scriptures inform 
us also, esg^ecially those of the prophets, Isa. div. 
xlv. ; Psalms xxxvii. cxv. ; and Jer. x., where the Soly 
Gf-host confutes and rebukes the people, and mocks 
their idols with a sort of holy disdain. 

- § 4. Now that which is farthest from idolatry, and 
the best antidote against it, is the principle we have 
laid down, and the more people's minds are turned and 
brought to it, and that they resolve their faith, wor- 
ship, and obedience into the holy illuminations and 
power of it, the^ nearer they grow to the end of their 
creation, and consequently to their Creator. They 
are more spiritually qualified, and become better fitted 
to worship God as he is : who, as we are told, by our 
Lord Jesus Christ, Is a Spirit, and will be worshipped 
in spirit and in truth, and that they are such sort of 
worshippers which Grod seeketh to worship him, in this 
gospel-day. "The hour cometh,'* saith he, "and now 
is.'* That is, some now do so, but more shall. A plain 
assertion in present, and a promise and prophecy of 
the increase of such worsphippers in future. Which 
shews a change intended from a ceremonial worship, 
and state of the church of God, to a spiritual one. 
Thus the text : « But the time cometh, and now is, when 
true worshippers shall worship the Father in spirit 
and in truth.** Which is as much as to say, when the 
worship of God shall be more inward than outward 
and so more suitable to the nature of God, and the 
nobler part of man, his inside, or his inward and better 
man: for so those blessed words import, in << spirit and 
in truth." In spirit, that is, through the power of the 
Spirit, In truth, that is, in realities, not in sha- 
dows, ceremonies, or formalities, but in sincerity, 



with and in Life, being divinely prepared and ani- 
mated ; which brings man not only to offer up righ 
worship, but also into intimate communion and feJr 
lawship with Qod^ who is a Spirit. 

§ 5. And if it be duly weighed, it will appear, that 
God in all his manifestations of himself, hath still 
oome nearer and nearer to the insides of men, that 
he might reach to their understandings, and open their 
hearts and give them a plainer and nearer acquaint- 
ance with himself in spirit : and then it is that man 
must seek and find the knowledge of Grod for his 
eternal happiness. Indeed, all things that are made 
shew forth the power and wisdom of God, and his 
goodness too, to mankind; and therefore many men 
urge the Creation to silence Atheistical objections : 
but tho* all those things shew a God, yet man does 
it, above all the rest. He is the precious stone of the 
ring, and the most glorious jewel of the globe; to 
whose reasonable use, service, and satisfaction, the 
whole seems to be made and dedicated. But Q-od's 
delight (by whom man was made, we are told by the 
Holy Ghost) is in the habitable parts of the earthy with 
the sons ofmen^ Pro v. viii. 31. And with those that are 
contrite in spirit, Isa. Ixvi. 1, 2 : <« Thus saith the Lord, 
The heaven is my throne, and the earth is my foot- 
stool : where is the house that ye build unto me ? and 
where is the place of my rest ? For all those things 
hath mine hand made, and all those things have been, 
eaith the Lord: but to this man will I look, even 
to him that is poor and of a contrite spirit, and 
trembleth at my word." And why is man his delight, 
but because man only, of all his works, was of his 
likeness. This is the intimate relation of man to 
God : somewhat nearer than ordinary ; for of all other 


beings, man only had the honour of being his image; 
and, by his resemblance to God, as I may say, came 
his kindred with God and knowledge of him. So that 
the nearest and best way for man to know God, and 
be acquainted with him, is to seek him in himself, in 
his image; and, as he finds that, he comes to find and 
know God. Now man may be said to be God's image 
in a double respect. First, As he is of an immortal 
nature ; and, next, as that nature is endued with those 
excellencies in »maZ?, and proportionable to a creature's 
capacity, that are by nature infinitely and incompa- 
rdbly in his Creator. For instance, wisdom, justice, 
mercy, holiness, patience, and the like. As man 
becomes holy, just, merciful, patient, &c. By the 
copy hQ will know the original, and by the work- 
manship in himself he will be acquainted with the 
holy workman. This, reader, is the Regeneration and 
New Oreaturewe press, (Gal. vi. 15, 16 : "For in Christ 
Jesus neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor un- 
circumcision, but a new creature. And as many aa 
walk according to this rule, peace be on them, and 
mercy, and upon the Israel of God,") and according 
to this rule^ we say, men ought to he religious, and 
walk in this world. Man, as I said just now, is a 
composition of both worlds ; his body is of this, his 
soul of the other world. The body is as the temple 
of the soul, the soul the temple of the Word, and 
the Word the great temple and manifestation of God. 
By the body the soul looks into and beholds this 
world, and by the Word it beholds God, and the 
world that is without end. Much might be said of 
this order of things, and their respective ezcelleB- 
cies, but I must be brief. 



2 1. The doctrines of satisfaction and jiistification owned and 
worded according to Scripture. { 2. What constmctions we can't 
belieTO of them, and which is an abuse of them. { 3. Christ 
owned a Sacrifice and Mediator. { 4. Justification twofold, 
from the guilt of sin, and from the power and pollution of it. 
J 5. Exhortation to the reader upon the whole. 

§ 1. Though there be many good things said, how 
Christ appears and works in a soul, to awaken, con- 
vince and convert it; yet you seem not particular 
enough about the death and sufferings of Christ : and 
it is generally rumoured and charged upon you by 
your adversaries, that you have little reverence to the 
doctrine of Christ's satisfaction to God for our sins, and 
that you do not believe, that the active and passive 
obedience of Christ, when he was in the world, is the 
alone ground of a sinner's justification before God. 

Answ. The doctrines of satisfaction and justifica- 
tion^ truly understood, are placed in so strict an union, 
that the one is a necessary consequence of the other, 
and what we say of them, is what agrees with the 
suffrage of Scripture, and for the most part in the 
terras of it ; always believing, that in points where 
there arises any difficulty, be it from the obscurity 
of expression, mis- translation, or the dust raised by 
the heats of partial writers, or nice critics, it is ever 
best to keep close to the text, and maintain charity in 
the rest. I shall first speak negatively, what we do not 
own, which perhaps hath given occasion to those who 


have been more hasty than wise, to judge us defective, 
in our belief, of the efficacy of the death and suffer- 
ings of Christ to justification : as 

§ 2. Firsty we cannot believe that Christ is the 
cause^ but the effect of God's love, according to the 
testimony of the beloved disciple John^ chap. iii. : Ood 
so loved the worlds that he gave his only -begotten Son 
into the world, that whosoever believeth in him should 
not perishy but have everlasting life. 

Secondly, we cannot say, God could not have taken 
another way to have saved sinners, than by the death 
and sufferings of his Son, to satisfy his justice, or that 
Christ's death and sufferings were a strict and rigid 
satisfaction for that eternal death and misery due to 
man for sin and transgression : for such a notion were 
to make God's mercy little concerned in man's salva- 
tion ; and indeed we are at too great a distance from 
his infinite wisdom and power, to judge of the liberty 
or necessity of his actings. 

Thirdly, we cannot say Jesus Christ was the great- 
est sinner in the world, (because he bore our sins on 
his cross, or because he was made sin for us, who 
knew no sin,) an expression of great levity and un- 
soundness, yet often said by great preachers and pro- 
fessors of religion. 

Fourthly, we cannot believe that Christ's death and 
Bufferings so satisfies God or justifies men, as that they 
are thereby accepted of God : they are indeed thereby 
put into a state capable of being accepted of God, 
and, through the obedience of faith and sanctification 
of the Spirit, are in a state of acceptance : for we can 
never think a man justified before God, while self- 
condemned : or that any man can be in Christ who is 
not a new creature; or that God looks upon men 


Otherwise than they are. We think it a state of pre- 
sumption and not of salvation^ to call JesuB Lordj and 
not by the work of the Holy Ghost ^ Master ^ and he 
not yet master of their affections : Saviour^ and they 
not saved by him from their sins: Redeemer j and yet 
they not redeemed by him from their passion^ pridcj 
covetousnesSy wantonness, vanity , vain honours, friend- 
ships, and glory of this world : which were to deceive 
themselves ; for God will not be mocked. Such as men 
sow, such they must reap. And though Christ did die 
for us, yet we must, by the assistance of his grace, 
work out our salvation with fear and trembling : as 
he died for sin, so we must die to sin, or we cannot 
be said to be saved by the death and suflFerings of 
Christ, or thoroughly justified and accepted with God. 
Thus far negatively. Now, positively, what we own 
as to justification. 

§ 3. We do believe that Jesus Christ was our holy 
sacrifice^ atonement^ niid propitiation ; that he bore 
our iniquities, and that by his stripes we were healed 
of the wounds Adam gave us in his fall ; and that 
God is just in forgiving true penitents upon the credit 
of that holy offering Christ made of himself to God 
for us ; and that what he did and suffered, satisfied 
and pleased God, and was for the sake of fallen man, 
that had displeased God ; and that through the offer- 
ing up of himself once for all, through the eternal 
Spirit, he hath forever perfected those (in all times) 
that were sanctified, ivho walked not after the flesh, 
but after the Spirit, Rom. viii. 1. Mark that. 

§ 4. In short, justification consists of two parts, or 
hath a twofold consideration, viz., justification from 
the guit of sin, and justification from the power and 
pollution of sill, and in this sense justification gives 


a man a fall and clear acceptance before God. For 
want of this latter part it is, that so many souls, reli- 
giously inclined, are often under doubts^ scruples^ and 
despondencies, notwithstanding all that their teachers 
tell them of the extent and efficacy of the first part 
of justification. And it is too general an unhappi- 
ness among the professors of Christianity, that they 
are apt to cloak their own active and passive disobe- 
dience with the active and passive obedience of Christ. 
The first part of justification, we do reverently and 
humbly acknowledge, is only for the sake of the death 
and sufferings of Christ : nothing can we do, thoicgh 
hy the operation of the Holy Spirit^ being able to can- 
cel old debts, or wipe out old scores : it is the power 
and efficacy of that propitiatory offering, upon faith 
and repentance^ that justifies us from the sins that are 
past ; and it is the power of Christ's Spirit in our 
hearts, that purifies and makes us acceptable before 
God. For till the heart of man is purged from sin, 
God will never accept of it. He reproves, rebukes and 
condemns those that entertain sin there, and therefore 
such cannot be said to be in a justified state ; con- 
demnation and justification being contraries : so that 
they who hold themselves in a justified state by the ac- 
tive and passive obedience of Christ, while they are not 
actively and passively obedient to the Spirit of Christ 
Jesus, are under a strong and dangerous delusion ; and 
for crying out against this sin-pleasing imagination, 
not to say doctrine^ we are staged and reproached as 
deniers and despisers of the death and sufferings of 
our Lord Jesus Christ. But be it known to such, 
they add to Christ's sufferings, and crucify to them- 
selves afresh the Son of God, and trample the blood 
of the covenant under their feet, that walk unholily 


under a profession of justification : for God will not 
acquit the guilty, nor justify the disobedient and un- 

Such deceive themselves, and at the great and final 
judgment their sentence will not be, Qomey ye blessed^ 
because it cannot be said to them, Well done good 
andfaithfuly for they cannot be so esteemed that live 
and die in a reprovable and condemnable state ; but, 
Go ye cursed, &c. 

§ 5. Wherefore, my reader ! rest not thyself 
wholly satisfied with what Christ has done for thee in 
his blessed person without thee, but press to know 
his power and kingdom within thee, that the strong 
man, that has too long kept thy house, may be hound, 
and his goods spoiled, his works destroyed, and sin 
ended, according to 1 John iii. 7 : *' Little children, 
let no man deceive you, he that doeth righteousness 
is righteous, even as He is righteous." ^^For which 
end,'' says that beloved disciple, ^'Christ was mani- 
fested, that all things may become new : new heavens 
and new earth, in which righteousness dwells^ Thus 
thou wilt come to glorify God in thy body and in thy 
spirit, which are his, and live to him and not to thy- 
self. Thy love, joy, worship and obedience ; thy life, 
conversation, and practice; thy study, meditation, 
and devotion, will be spiritual: for the Father and 
the Son will make their abode with thee, and Christ 
will manifest himself to thee; for "the secrets of 
the Lord are with them that fear him:'* and an 
holy unction or anointing have all those, which 
leads them into all truth, and they need not the 
teachings of men. They are better taught, being 
instructed by the divine oracle: no bare hearsay, or 
traditional Christians, but fresh and living witnesses: 


those that have seen with their own eyeSy and heard 
with their awn ears, and have handled with their own 
hands, the word of life, in the divers operations of 
it to their souls' salvation. In this they meet, in this 
they preach, and in this they pray and praise. Be- 
hold the- new covenant fulfilled, the church and wor- 
ship of Christ, the great Anointed of God, and the 
great anointing of God, in his holy high-priesthood, 
and offices in his church ! 


2 1. A confession to Christ and his work^ both in doing and suffer- 
ing. J 2. That ought not to make Toid our belief and testimony 
of his inward and spiritual appearance in the sonl. } 3. What 
oar testimony is in the latter respect : that it is impossible to 
be sayed by Christ without us, while we reject his work and 
power within us. 2 ^' ^^® dispensation of grace, in its nature 
and extent. { 5. A further acknowledgment to the death and 
sufferings of Christ. J 6. The conclusion, showing our adversa- 
ries' unreasonableness. 

§ 1. And lest any should say we are equivocal in 
our expressions, and allegorize away Christ's appear- 
ance in the flesh ; meaning only thereby, our own flesh ; 
and that as often as we mention Him, we mean only 
a mystery ^ or a mystical sense of Him, be it as to his 
coming^ births miracles^ sufferings^ deaths resurrec- 
tioMy ascension, mediation and judgment; I would 
yet add, to preserve the well-disposed from being 
staggered by such suggestions, and to inform and re- 
claim such as are under the power and prejudice of 

them, that, we do, we bless God, religiously believe 



and confess, to the glory of God the Father, and the 
honour of his dear and beloved Son, that, JesvA Chri^ 
took our nature upon himy and was like unto us tn 
all things^ sin excepted : That he was bom of the 
Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate^ the 
Roman governor^ was crucified^ dead, and buried 
in the sepulchre of Joseph of Arimathea; rose again 
the third day, and ascended into heaven, and sits an 
the right hand of God, in the power and majesty of 
his Father ; who will one day judge the world by him, 
even that blessed man, Christ Jesus, accbrding to their 

§ 2. But because we so believe, must we not believe 
what Christ said, "JTe that is with you shall be in 
you"? John xiv. "I in them and they in ?we," &c.: 
chap. xvii. " When it pleased God to reveal his Son 
in me," &c. : Gal. " The mystery hid from ages, is 
Christ in the Gentiles the hope of glory :" Col. i. 
^'Unless Christ he in you, ye are reprobates :'' 2 Cor. 
xiii. Or must we be industi'iously represented de- 
niers of Christ's coming in the flesh, and the holy ends 
of it, in all the parts and branches of his doing and 
suffering^ only because we believe and press the ne- 
cessity of believing, receiving and obeying his inward 
and spiritual appearance and manifestation of him- 
self, through his light, grace, and Spirit, in the hearts 
and consciences of men and women, to reprove, con- 
vict, convert, and change them? This we esteem 
liard and unrighteous measure ; nor would our warm 
and sharp adversaries be so dealt with by others : but 
to do as they would be done to, is too often no part 
of their practice, whatever it be of their profession. 

§ 3. Yet we are very ready to declare to the Avhole 
world, that we cannot think men and women can be 


saoed by their belief of the one, without the 8en%e 
and experience of the other ; and that is what we 
appose, and not his blessed manifestation in the flesh. 
We say that he then overcame our common enemy, 
foiled him in the open field, and in our nature tri- 
umphed over him that 'had overcome and triumphed 
over it in our forefather Adam and his posterity: 
and that as truly as Christ overcame him in our 
nature, in his own person, so, hy his divine graces 
being received and obeyed by us, he overcomes him 
in us : that is, he detects the enemy by his light in 
the conscience, and enables the creature to resist him 
and all his fiery darts ; and finally, so to fight the 
good fight of faith, as to overcome him, and lay hold 
on eternal life. 

§ 4. And this is the dispensation of grace, which we 
declare has appeared to all, more or less ; teaching 
those that will receive it, <<to deny ungodliness and 
worldly IttstSy and to live soberly^ righteotcsly, and 
godly in this present world; looking for (which none 
else can justly do) the blessed hope, and glorious 
appearing of the great G-od, and our Saviour Jesus 
Christy' &c. : Tit. ii. 11, 12, 13. And as from the 
teachings, experience and motion, of this grace we 
minister to others, so the very drift of our ministry 
is to turn people's minds to this grace in themselves, 
that all of them may up and be doing, << even the 
good and acceptable will of Q-od, and work out their 
salvation with fear and trembling, and make their 
high and heavenly calling and election sure;'' which 
none else can do, whatever be their ^o/e«aion, church, 
and character ; for such as men sow they must' reap; 
and his servants we are whom we obey. Regenera- 
tion we must know, or we cannot be children of 6od^ 


and heirs of eternal glory: and to be born again, 
another spirit and principle must prevail^ leaveUj 
season^ and govern us, than either the spirit of the 
world, or our own depraved spirits ; and this can be 
no other spirit than that which dwelt in Christ ; for 
unless that dwell in us, we can be none of his. Rom. 
viii. 9. : ^^Butye are not in the fleshy but in the Spirit^ 
if 80 be that the Spirit of God dwell in you. Now if 
any man have not the Spirit of Christy he is none of 
his.'' And this Spirit begins in conviction^ and ends 
in conversion and perseverance ; and the one follows 
the other. Conversion being the consequence of 
convictions obeyed^ and perseverance a natural fruit 
of conversion, and being born of God. «Jbr such sin 
not J 'because the Seed of God abides in them.** John 
iii. 7, 8 : ^'3farvel not that I said unto thee. Ye must 
be born again. The wind bloweth where it listeth, 
and thou hearest the sound thereof but canst not tell 
whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every 
one that is born of the Spirit.*' But such, through 
faithfulness, continue to the end, and obtain the pro- 
mise, even everlasting life. 

§ 5. But let my reader take this along with him, 
that we do acknowledge that Christ, through his holy 
doi7ig and suffering, (for being a Son he learned 
obedience) has obtained mercy of God his Father for 
mankind, and that his obedience has an influence to 
our salvation, in all the parts and branches of it, 
since thereby he became a conqueror, and led cap- 
tivity captive, and obtained gifts for men, with divers 
great and precious promises, that thereby we might be 
partakers of the divine nature, having (first) escaped 
the corruption that is in the world, through lust. I 
say, we do believe and confess, that the active and 


panive obedience of Christ Jesns affects oar salva- 
tion throughout, as well from the power and pollution 
of sin, as from the guilt, he being a conqueror as 
well as a sacrifice, and both through suffering; Yet 
they that reject his divine gift, so obtained, (and which 
he has given to them, by which to see their sin and 
the sinfulness of it, and to repent and turn away 
from it, and do so no more ; and to wait upcTn God 
for daily strength to resist the fiery darts of the 
enemy, and to be comforted through the obedience 
of faith in and to this divine grace of the Son of 
God) such, do not please God, believe truly in God, 
nor are they in a state of true Christianity and sal- 
vation. "TFbman," said Christ, to the Samaritan at 
the well, " hadst thou known the gift of Q-od^ and 
who it is that speaketh to thecy** &c. People know 
not Christ, and God, whom to know is life eternal, 
John xvii., because they are ignorant of the gift of 
God, viz., a measure of the Spirit of God that is 
given to every one to profit with. 1 Cor. xii. 7 : " But 
the manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man 
to profit withal." Which reveals Christ and God to 
the soul; 1 Cor. ii. 1 : "And I, brethren, when I came 
to you, came not with excellency of speech, or of 
wisdom, declaring unto you the testimony of God. 

«2. For I determined not to know any thing 
among you, save Jesus Christ, and him crucified. 

« 3. And I was with you in weakness, and in fear, 
and in much trembling. 

« 4. And my speech and my preaching was not 
with enticing words of man's wisdom, but in demon- 
stration of the Spirit and of power : 

« 5. That your faith should not stand in the wis- 
dom of men, but in the power of God. 



<< 6. Howbeit we speak wisdom among them that 
are perfect : yet not the wisdom of this world, nor 
of the princes of this world, that come to noaght : 

" 7. But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, 
even the hidden wisdoMy which God ordained before 
the world unto our glory ; 

« 8. Which none of the princes of this world knew: 
for had they known «Y, they would not have crucified 
the Lord of glory. 

«< 9. But as it is written. Eye hath not seen, nor 
ear heard, neither have entered into thie heart of man, 
the things which God hath prepared for them that 
love him. 

" 10. But God hath revealed them unto us by his 
Spirit ; for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the 
deep things of God. 

" 11. For what man knoweth the things of a man, 
save the spirit of man which is in him ? even so the 
things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God. 

" 12. Now we have received, not the spirit of the 
world, but the Spirit which is of God ; that we might 
know the things that are freely given to us of God. 

« 13. Which things also we speak, not in the words 
which man's wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy 
Ghost teacheth ; comparing spiritual things with spi- 

" 14. But the natural man receiveth not the things 
of the Spirit of God ; for they are foolishness unto 
him : neither can he know themy because they are 
spiritually discerned. 

<«15. But he that is spiritual judgeth all things, 
yet he himself is judged of no man. 

'« 16. For who hath known the mind of the Lord, 


that he may instruct him ? But we have the mind 
of Christ." 

FUbK and blood cannot do it, Oxford and Cawr 
bridge cannot do it, tongues and philosophy cannot 
do it : for thej that by wisdom knew not God, had 
these things for their wisdom. They were strong, 
deep and accurate in them ; but, alas ! they were 
clouded, puffed up, and set further off from the inward 
and saying knowledge of God, because they sought 
for it in them, and thought to find God there. But the 
JK^ey of David is another thing, which shuts and no 
man opens, and opens and no man shuts ; and this 
key have all they that receive the gift of God into 
their hearts, and it opens to them the knowledge of 
God and themselves, and gives them a quite other 
sights taste and judgment of things than their edur 
cational or traditional knowledge afforded them. 
This is the beginning of the new creation of God, 
and thus it is we come to be new creatures. 

And we are bold to declare, there is no other way 
like this, by which people can come into Christ, or be 
true Christians, or receive the advantage that comes 
by the death and sufferings of the Lord Jesus Christ. 
Wherefore we say, and upon good authority, even 
that oiour own experience^ as well as that of the Scrip- 
tures of truth, Christ will prove no saving sacrifice 
for them, that refuse to obey him for their example. 
They that reject the gift, deny the giver instead of 
themselves for the giver's sake. Oh that people were 
wise, that they would consider their latter end, and 
the things that make for the peace thereof! Why 
should they perish in a vain hope of life, while death 
reigns ? Of living with God, who live not to him, nor 
walk with him ? 


Awakej thoa that Bleepest in thy sin, or at best, 
in thy self-righteoosness ! Awake, I say, and Christ 
shall give thee life ! For he is the Lord from heaven^ 
ike quickening Spirit^ that quickens us, by his Spirit, 
if we do not remt it and quench it by our disobe- 
dience, but receive, love and obey it, in all the holy 
leadings and teachings of it. Bom. viii. 14, 15, 16 : 
<<For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they 
are the sons of God. 

« 16. For ye have not received the spirit of bondage 
again to fear; but ye have received the spirit of 
adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father. 

<«16. The Spirit itself beareth witness with our 
spirit, that we are children of God :" 

To which Holy Spirit I commend my reader, that 
he may the bptter see where he is, and also come to 
the true belief and advantage of the doings and 
sufferings of our dear and blessed Lord and Saviour 
Jesus Christ, who saves from the power and pollution^ 
as well as guilt of sin, all those that hear his knocks^ 
and open the door of their hearts to him, that he may 
come in and work a real and thorough reformation in 
and for them; and so the benefit, virtue and efficacy 
of his doings and sufferings without us, will come to 
be livingly and effectually applied and felt, and fel- 
lowship with Christ in his death and sufferings known, 
according to the doctrine of the apostle ; which, those 
that live in that which made him suffer, know not, 
though they profess to be saved by his death and 
sufferings. Much more might be said as to this 
matter, but I must be brief. 

§ 6. To conclude this chapter, we wonder not that 
we should be mistaken, misconstrued and misrepre- 
sented, in what we believe and do to salvation, since 


our betters have been so treated in the primitive 
times. Nor indeed is it only about doctrines of 
religion ; for our practice in worship and discipline 
have had the same success. But this is what I 
earnestly desire, that however bold people are pleased 
to make with us, they would not deceive themselves 
in the great things of their own salvation : that while 
they would seem to own all to Christ, they are not 
found disowned of Christ in the last day. Read the 
7th of Matthew: It is he that hears Christ, the 
great Word of Q-od^ and does what he enjoins, what 
he commands, and by his blessed example recom- 
mends, that is a wise builder^ that has founded his 
house well, and built with good materials, and whose 
house will stand the last shock and judgment. For 
which cause we are often plain, close and earnest 
with people to consider, that Christ came not to save 
them in, but from their sins ; and that they that 
think to discharge and release themselves of his yoke 
and burden^ his cross and example^ and secure them- 
selves, and compliment Christ with his having done 
all for them (while he has wrought little or nothing 
in them, nor they parted with any thing for the love 
of him) will finally awake in a dreadful surprise, at 
the sound of the last trumpet^ and at this sad and 
irrevocable sentence, ^^Bepart from me ye workers of 
iniquity^ I know you not :'^ which terrible end may 
all timely avoid, by hearkening to wisdom's voice, and 
turning at her reproof, that she may lead them in the 
ways of righteousness, and in the midst of the paths 
of judgment, that their souls may come to inherit 
substance ; even durable riches and righteousness in 
the kingdom of the Father, world without end. 

70 PRiHirrvE Christianity bevivbd. 


{ 1. Of the true worship of Ood in what it stands, {2. Of the true 
ministry, that it it by inspiration. J 8. The Scripture plain in that 
ease, { 4. Christie ministersy true witnesses, they speak what they 
know, not by report, J 5. Chris fs ministers preach freely; it is 
one of their marks. 

§ 1. As the Lord wrought effectually, by his divine 
grace, in the hearts of this people, so he thereby 
brought them to a divine worship and ministry: 
Christ's words they came to experience, viz. : That 
Grod was a Spirit^ and that he would therefore be wor- 
shipped in the Spirit^ and in the truthy and that such 
worshippers the Father would seek to worship him. 
For, bowing to the convictions of the Spirit in them- 
selves, in their daily course of living, by which they 
were taught to eschew that which was made manifest 
to them to be evil, and to do that which was good, 
they, in their assembling together, sat down, and 
waited for the preparation of this Holy Spirit, both 
to let them see their states and conditions before the 
Lord, and to worship him acceptably; and as they 
were sensible of wants, or shortness, or infirmities, so 
in the secret of their own hearts, prayer would spring 
to God, through Jesus Christ, to help, assist and sup- 
ply : but they did not dare to awake their Beloved 
before his time ; or approach the throne of the King 
of Q-lory, till he held out his sceptre ; or take thought 
what they should say^ or after their own or other 
men's studied words and forms^ for this were to oflFer 


%trange fire ; to pray, but not by the Spirit ; to ask, 
but not in the name, that is, in the power of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, who prayed, as well as spoke, like one 
having authority, that is, power ^ a divine energy and 
force to reach and pierce the heavens, which he gives 
to all that obey his lights grace and Spirit^ in their 
solemn waitings upon him. So that it is this people's 
principle, that fire must come from heaven; life and 
power from God to enable the soul to pour out itself 
acceptably before him. 

And when a coal from his holy altar touches our 
lips, then can we pray and praise him as we ought to 
do. And as this is our principle, and that according 
to Scripture, so it is, blessed be God, our experience 
and practice: and therefore it is we are separated 
from the worships of men, under their several forms, 
because they do not found it in the operation, motion 
and assistance of the Spirit of Christ, but the ap- 
pointment, invention and framing of man, both as to 
the matter, words and time. We do not dissent in 
our own wills, and we dare not comply against his 
that has called us, and brought us to his own spiritual 
worship ; in obedience to whom we are what we are, 
in our separation from the divers ways of worship in 
the world. 

§ 2. And as our worship stands in the operation 
of the Spirit and Truth in our inward parts, as before 
expressed, so does our ministry. For as the holy 
testimonies of the servants of God of old, were from 
the operation of his blessed Spirit, so must those of 
his servants be in every age, and that which has not 
the Spirit of Christ for its spring and source, is of 
man^ and not of Christ. Christian ministers are to 
minister what they receive: this is Scripture; now 


that which we receive is not oar own, less another 
man's, but the Lord's : so that we are not only not 
to steal from our neighbours, but we are not to study 
nor speak our awn words. If we are not to study 
what we are to say before magistrates for ourselves, 
less are we to study what we are to say /or and from 
God to the people. We are to minister, as the oracles 
of God; if so, then must we receive from Christ j 
God's great oracle, what we are to minister. And 
if we are to minister what we receive, then not 
what we study, collect, and beat out of our own 
brains, for that is not the mind of Christ, but our 
imaginations, and this will not profit the people. 

§ 3. This was recommended to the Corinthians by 
the Apostle Paul, 1 Cor. xiv., that they should speak 
as they were movedy or as any thing was revealed to 
therrij hy the Spirit^ for the edification of the church ; 
for, says he, ye may all prophesy ; that is, ye may 
all preach to edification, as any thing is revealed to 
yoUj for the good of others, and as the Spirit giveth 
utterance. And if the Spirit must give Christ's 
ministers their utterance, then those that are his are 
careful not to utter any thing in his name to the 
people, without his Spirit ; and by good consequence, 
they that go before the true guide, and utter words 
without the knowledge of the mind of the Spirit, are 
none of Christ's ministers : such, certainly, run, and 
God has not sent them, and they cannot profit the 
people. And indeed, how should they, when it is 
impossible that mere man, with all his parts, arts and 
acquirements, can turn people from darkness to lights 
and from the power of Satan to God, which is the 
very end and work of the gospel ministry. It must 
be inspired men, men gifted by God, taught and in- 


fiuenced by his heayenly Spirit, that can be qualified 
for so great, so inward, and so spiritual a work. 

§ 4. Ministers of Christ are his witnessesj and the 
credit of a witness is, that he has heard, seen or 
Tiandled: and thus the beloved disciple states the 
truth and authority of their mission and ministry ; 
1 John i. 1, 3 : That which we have heard, which we 
have seen with our eyes, which we have looked upon 
and our hands have handled, that declare we unto 
you, that your fellowship may he with us, and truly 
our fellowship is with the Father, and with his Son 
Jesus CJirist. I say, if Christ's ministers are his 
witnesses, they must know what they speak ; that is, 
they must have experienced and passed through those 
states and conditions, they preach of, and practically 
know those truths they declare of to the people, or 
they come not in by the door, but over the wall, and 
are thieves and robbers. He that has the key of 
David comes in at the door, Christ Jesus, and has his 
admission and approbation from him, anointed by 
him, the alone high-priest of the gospel dispensation. 
He it is that breathes, and lays his hands upon his 
own ministers; he anoints them, and recruits their 
cruse, and renews their horn with oil, that they may 
have it pure and fresh for every occasion and service 
he calls them to, and engages them in. 

§ 5. Nor is this all, but as they receive freely, freely 
they give: they do not teach for hire^ divine for 
money, nor preach for gifts or rewards. It was 
Christ's holy command to his ministers to give freely, 
and it is our practice. And truly we cannot but 
admire that this should be made a fault, and that 
preaching for hire should not be seen to be one ; yea, 
a mark of false prophets, when it has been so fre^ 



quently and severely cried out upon, by the true pro- 
phets of God in former times. I would not be un- 
charitable, but the guilty are desired to call to mind, 
who it was that offered money to be made a minister, 
and what it was for ; if not to get money and make a 
trade or livelihood by it ; and what answer he met 
with from the Apostle Peter, Acts viii. 18, 19, 20: 
^^And when Simon saw that through laying on of 
the apo8tle*8 hands the Holy Ghost was given, he 
offered them money, saying, CHve me also this power, 
that on whomsoever I lay hands, he may receive the 
Soly Grhost. But Peter said unto him. Thy money 
perish with thee, because thou hast thought that the 
gift of Grod may be purchased with money.** 

The Lord touch the hearts of those that are giving 
money to be made ministers, in order to live by their 
preaching, that they may see what ground it is they 
build upon, and repent, and turn to the Lord, that 
they may find mercy, and become living witnesses of 
his power and goodness in their own souls ; so may 
they be enabled to tell others what God has done for 
them, which is the root and ground of the true 
ministry ; and this ministry it is that God does bless. 
I could say much on this subject, but let what has 
been said suffice at this time, only I cannot but 
observe, that where any religion has a strong tempta- 
tion of gain to induce men to be ministers, there is 
great danger of their running faster to that calling, 
than becomes a true gospel minister. 

§ 1. Obj. But does not this sort of ministry, and 
worship, tend to make people careless, and to raise 
spiritual pride in others, may it not give an occasion 
to great mischief and irreligion f 

Answ. By no means, for when people are of age, 


', of right, expect their inheritances; and the 
of all words is to bring people to the great Wordy 
then the promise of God is accomplished, « They 
I be all taught of me, from the least to the great* 
and in righteousness (pray mark that) they shall 
established, and great shall be their peace,'* To 
of the evangelical prophet, the beloved disciple 
les, and gives a full answer to the objection : 
se things have I written unto you, concerning 
% that seduce you: but the anointing, which ye 
3 received of him, abideth in you, and ye need 
that any man teach you, but as the same anoint- 
teacheth you, of all things, and is truth, and is 
ie ; and even as it hath taught you, ye shall abide 
dm : In which, three things are observable. 1st. 
t he wrote his epistle upon an extraordinary ooc&- 
, viz. to prevent their delusion. 2dly. That he 
rts a nearer and superior minister than himself, 
the anointing or grace they had received; and 
•» not only in that particular exigency, but in aU 
is that might attend them. 3dly. That if they 
but take head to the teachings of it, they would 
d no need of man's directions, or fear of his se- 
ings. At least of no ministry that comes not from 
power of the anointing: though I rather take the 
3tle in the highest sense of the words : thus also 
Apostle Paul to the Thessahnians. ^^But a$ 
jhing brotherly lovcj ye need not that 1 write unto 
: for ye yourselves are taught of Q-od to love (me 
ther.*' 1 Thess. iv. 9. But helps are useful, and 
*eat blessing, if from God, such was John the Bap- 
's ; but remember he pointed all to Christ, John 
6 : << Lo, the Lamb of God ! I baptize you with 
eTy but he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost 


and with fire/' Matt. iii. 11. And so the true ministry 
does. And while people are sensual, and under such 
an eclipse, by the interposition of sinj^xxid Satan^ God 
is pleased to send forth his enlightening servants to 
awaken and turn them from the darkness to the light 
in themselves^ that, through obedience to it, they may 
come to be children of the lightf John xii. 36 : And 
have their fellowship one with another in it, and an 
inheritance at last, with the saints in light forever. 

And as it is the way God has taken to call and 
gather people, so a living and holt/ ministry is of 
great advantage to watch over, and build up the 
young, and comfort and estahlish the feeble and aim* 
pie ones. But still I say, the more inward, the less 
outward; the more people come to be taught imme- 
diately of God, by the light of his word and Spirit in 
their hearts, the less need of outward means, read 
Isa. Ix. 19, 20 : << The sun shall he no more thy light 
by day ; neither for brightness shall the moon give 
light unto thee : but the Lord shall be unto thee an 
everlasting light, and thy God thy glory. Thy wun 
shall no more go down ; neither shall thy moon with- 
draw itself: for the Lord shall be thine everlasting 
light, and the days of thy mourning shall be ended.*' 
Which is held by all to be a gospel promise, and the 
sun and moon there are generally understood to mean 
the external means in the church. Compare them 
with John i. 13 : " Which were born, not of blood, 
nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but 
of God.'* And Rom. i. 19 : ^^ Because that which may 
be known of God is manifest in them : for God hath 
shewed it unto them." And 1 Cor. ii. 11-15 : ^^For 
what man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit 
of man which is in him f Even so, the things of God 


knoweth no man, hut the Spirit of Gf-od, Now we 
have received, not the spirit cf the world, hut the 
Spirit which is^f Q-od; that we might know the 
things that are freely given to us of Q^od. Which 
things also we speak, not in the words which man's 
wisdom teacheth, hvt which the Holy Ghost teaeheth; 
comparing spiritual things with spiritual. But 
the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit 
of Q-od; for they are foolishness unto him: neither 
can he know them, hecause they are spiritually dis- 
cerned. But he that is spiritual judgeth all things, 
yet he himself is judged of no man.'' And 1 Thess. 
iv. 9 : " Bu;t as touching brotherly love, ye need not 
that I write unto you: for ye yourselves are taught 
of Q-od to love one another." And 1 John ii. 20-27 : 
^^But ye have an unction from the Holy One, and ye 
know all things. I have not tvritten unto you he- 
cause ye know not the truth ; hut hecause ye know it, 
and that no lie is of the truth. Who is a liar hut he 
that denieth that Jesus is tKe Christ? He is Antir 
christ, that denieth the Father and the Son. Whoso- 
ever denieth the Son, the same hath not the Father : 
(but he that acenowledgbth the Son hath the 
Father also.) Let that therefore ahide in you, which 
ye have heard from the beginning. If that which ye 
have heard from the beginning shall r^mmn in you, 
ye also shall continue in the Son, and in the Father. 
And this is the promise that he hath promised us, 
even eternal life. These things have I written unto 
you concerning them that seduce you. But the 
anointing, which ye have received of him, abideth in 
you ; and ye need rvot that any man teach you : hut 
as the same anointing teacheth you of all things, and 

is truth, and is no lie, and even as it hath taught 



youj ye shall abide in him,'' And Bev. xxi. 22, 23, 24: 
"-Awd / saw no temple therein: far the Lord Ood 
Almighty^ and the Lamby are the tei^le of it. And 
the city had no need of the sun^ neither of the moon^ 
to shine in it : for the glory of Q-od did lighten itj and 
the Lamb is the light thereof. And the nations of 
them which are saved, shall walk in the light of it; 
and the kings of the earth do bring their glory and 
honour into it.** All which places prove "what we 
assert of the sufficiency and glorious privilege of in- 
ward and spiritual teachings. And most certainly, 
as men grow in grace, and know the anointing of the 
Word in themselves, the dispensation will be less in 
words (though in words) and more in life ; and preach- 
ing will in great measure be tamed into praising, and 
the worship of God, more into walking withy than 
talking of God : for that is worship indeed, that bows 
to his will at all times, and in all places : the truest^ 
the highest worship, man is capable of in this world* 
And it is that conformity that gives communion, and 
there is no fellowship with God, no light of his coun- 
tenance to be enjoyed, no peace and assurance to be 
had, further than their obedience to his will, and a 
faithfulness to his word, according to the manifesta- 
tion of the light thereof in the heart. 

I say, this is the truest and highest state of wor- 
ship ; for set days and places, with all the solemnity 
of them, were most in request in the weakest dispen- 
sation. Altars, arks and temples. Sabbaths and 
festivals, &c., are not to be found in the writings of 
the New Testament. There every day is alike, and 
every place is alike ; but if there were a dedication, let 
it be to the Lord. Rom. xiv. 6, 6, 7, 8, 17 : " One man 
esteemeth one day above another; another esteemeth 


€9eTy day alike. Let every man he fully persuaded 

in his own mind. He that regardeth the day^ re- 

gardeth it unto^e Lord; and he that regardeth not 

the day, to the Lord he doth not regard it. He that 

eateth^ eateth to the Lord, for he giveth Qod thanks; 

and he that eateth not, to the Lord he eateth not, and 

giveth €hd thanks. For none of us liveth to himself, 

and no man dieth to himself For whether ice live, 

tee live unto the Lord; and whether we die, we die 

unto the Lord; whether we live, therefore, or die, we 

are the Lord's. 

17th ver. " For the kingdom of Chd is not meat 
and drink ; hut righteousness, and peace, and joy in 
the Holy Ghost.** 

1 Cor. viii. 6: ^^But to us there is hvt one Cf-ody 
the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him; 
and one Lord Jestis Christ, hy whom are all things, 
and we hy him.** Col. ii. 16, 17 : ^^Let no man 
therefore, judge you, in meat, or in drink, or in re- 
spect of an holy-day, or of the new-moon, or of the 
sahbath-days ; which are a shadow of things to come'; 
hut the body is of Christ.** 

Phil. i. 21 : « For to me to live is Christ, and to 
die is gain.** 

Gral. ii. 20 : "J am crucified with Christ : never^ 
theUss I live : yet not I, hut Christ liveth in me : 
and the life which I now live in the flesh, I live hy 
the faith of the Son of Q-od, who loved me, and gave 
himself for me.** Thus the Apostle, but he plainly 
shows a state beyond it, for to live (with him) was 
Christ, and to die was gain ; for the life he lived, 
was hy the faith of the Son of Qod, and therefore it 
was not he that lived, hut Christ that lived in him ; 
that is, that ruled, conducted, and hore sway in himi 


which 18 the true Chtiitxan life, the Bupersen^ual life; 
the l^e of converaum and regeneration ; to which idl 
the dwpensationB of God, and ministry of his servants 
have ever tended, as the consummation of God's work 
for man's happiness. Here every man is a tempUy 
and every family a churchy and every place a meeting" 
placBy and every visit a meeting. And yet a litde 
while and it shall be so yet more and more ; and a 
people the Lord is now preparing to enter into this 
Sabbath or degree of rest. 

Not that we would be thought to undervalue public 
and solemn meetings: we have them all over the 
nation where the Lord hath called us. Yea, though 
but two or three of us be in a comer of a country, 
we meet, as the Apostle exhorted the saints of Us 
time, and reproved such as neglected to assemble 
themselves. But yet show we unto thee, reader^ a 
more excellent way of worship : for many may come 
to those meetings, and go away carnal^ dead and 
dry ; but the worshippers in spirit and in truths 
whose hearts bow, whose minds adore the Eternal 
God, that is a Spirit^ in and by his Spirit, such as 
conform to his will, and walk with him in a spiritual 
life, they are the true^ constant, living and acceptable 
worshippers; whether it be in meetings or out of 
meetings ; and as with such, all outward assemblies 
are greatly comfortable, so also do we meet for a 
public testimony of religion and worship, and for the 
edification and encouragement of those that are yet 
young in the truth, and to call and gather others to 
the knowledge of it, who are yet going astray ; and 
blessed be God, it is not in vain, since many are 
thereby added to the church, that we hope and believe 
shall be saved. 



2 1. Against tithes, J 2. Against all swearing, { 8. Against war 
among Christians, J 4. Against the salutations of the times,. { 6* 
And for plainness of speech, J 6. Against mixt marriages, { 7. 
And for plainness in apparel^ ^c. No sports and pastimes after the 
manner of this world, i S, Of observing days, ^9, Of tare of 
poor, peace and conversation, 


§ 1. And as God has been pleased to call us from 
an human ministrt/j so we cannot for conscience' sake 
support and maintain it, and upon that score, and not 
out of humour or covetausneaSy we refuse to pay 
tithes, or such like pretended dues, concerning which, 
many books have been writ in our defence : we can- 
not support what we cannot approve, but have a tes- 
timony against ; for thereby we should be found tn- 
conaistent with ourselves. ^ 

§ 2. We dare not swear ^ because Christ forbids it. 
Matt. V. 34-37 : " But I say unto you, swear not at 
all : neither by heaven ; for it is God's throne : nor 
by the earth ; for it is his footstool: neither by Jeru- 
salem ; for it is the city of the great Eang : neither 
shalt thou swear by thy head ; because thou canst not 
make one hair white or black. But let your com- 
munication be Yea, yea ; Nay, nay : for whatsoever is 
more than these cometh of evil." And James^ his 
true follower. It is needless as well as evil, for the 
reason of swearing being untruth, that man's yea wa$ 
not yea. Swearing was used to awe men to truth- 
speaking, and to give others satisfaction, that what 


"was sworn, was true. But the true Christian's yea 
being yea^ the end of an oath is answered and there- 
fore the use of it is needless^ superfluotcs and eometh 
of evil. The Apostle James taught the sa(tne doctrine, 
and the primitive Christiana practised it, as may be 
seen in the Book of Martyrs ; as also the earliest and 
best of the Reformers. 

§ 3. We also believe, that war oiight to cease^ 
among the followers of the Lamb Christ Jesus, who 
taught his disciples to forgive and love their enemieSj 
and not to war against them, and kill them ; and that 
therefore the weapons of his true followers are not 
carnal but spiritual; yea, mighty, through God, to 
cut down sin and wickedness^ and dethrone him that 
is the author thereof. And as this is the most 
Christian^ so the most rational way ; love and per- 
suasion having more force than weapons of war. 
Nor would the worst of men easily be brought to hurt 
those that they really think love them. It is that 
love and patience must in the end have the victory. 

§ 4. We dare not give worldly honour, or use the 
frequent and modish salutations of the times, seeing 
plainly, that vanity ^ pride and ostentation^ belong to 
them. Christ also forbade them in his day, and made 
the love of them a mark of declension from the sim- 
plicity of purer times; and his disciples, and their 
followers, were observed to have obeyed their Master's 
precept. It is not to distinguish ourselves a party, 
or out of pridcy ill-breeding or humour^ but in obedi- 
ence to the sight and sense we have received from 
the Spirit of Christ, of the evil rise and tendency 

§ 6. For the same reason we have returned to the 
first plainness of speech, viz. thou and thee^ to a 


Bungle person, which though men give no other to God, 
bliey will hardly endure it from us. It has been a 
^reat test upon pride, and shewn the Hind and weak 
''9i9idet of many. This also is out of pure conscience, 
^rhatever people may think or say of us for it. We 
snay be despised, and have been so often, yea, very 
evilly entreated, but we are now better known, and 
^be people better informed. In short, it is also both 
Scripture and grammar^ and we have propriety of 
speech for it, as well as peace in it. 

§ 6. We cannot allow of mixed marriageSy that is, 

^ join with such as are not of our society; but 

^>ppose and disown them, if at any time any of our 

"j)rofession so grossly err from the rule of their com- 

snunion ; yet restore them upon sincere repentance, 

l)ut not disjoin them. The book I writ of the rise 

and progress of the people called Quakers^ is more full 

and express herein. 

§ 7. Plainness in apparel and furniture^ is another 
testimony peculiar to us, in the degree we have bore 
it to the world : as also few wordsj and being at a 
word. Likewise temperance in food, and abstinence 
from the recreations and pastimes of the world : all 
which we have been taught, by the Spirit of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, to be according to godliness ; and there- 
fore we have long exhorted all, that their moderation 
may be known unto all men, for that the Lord was at 
hand, to enter into judgment with us for every in- 
temperance or excess ; and herein we hope we have 
been no ill examples, or scandal unto any that have a 
due consideration of things. 

§ 8. We cannot, in conscience to God, observe holy 
days (so called) the public fasts and feasts, because 
of their human institution and ordination, and that 


they have not a divine warranty but are appointed in 
the will of man. 

§ 9. Lastly, we have been led by this good Spirit 
of oar Lord Je9U% Christj of which I have treated in 
this discourse, according to primitive practice, to 
have a due care over one another, for the preservation 
of the whole society, in a conversation more suitabU 
to their holy profession. 

First. In respect to a strict walking both towards 
those that are without, and those that are within; 
that their conversation in the world, and walking in 
and towards the church, may be blameless. That as 
they may be strict in the one, so they may he faithful 
in the other. 

Secondly. That collections be made to supply the 
wants of the poor^ and that care be taken of widows 
and orphanSy and such as are helpless, as well in 
counsel, as about substance. 

Thirdly. That all such as are intended to marry, 
if they have parents^ or are under the direction of 
guardians or trustees^ are obliged, firsty to declare to 
them their intention, and have their consent before 
they propose it to one another, and the meeting they 
relate to, who are also careful to examine their clear- 
ness, and being satisfied with it, they are by them 
allowed to solemnize their marriage in a public select 
meeting, for that purpose appointed, and not other- 
wise : whereby all clandestine and indirect marriages 
are prevented among us. 

Fourthly. And to the end that this good order may 
be observed, for the comfort and edification of the 
society y in the ways of truth and soberness; select 
meetings (of care and business) are fixed in all parts, 
where we inhabit, which are held monthly ^ and which 


resolve into quarterly meetingSy and those into one 
yearly meeting, for our better commonication one 
■rith another, in those things that maintain piety and 
tskarity ; that God, who by his grace, has called us to 
be a people, to his praise, may have it from us, 
tiiroagh his beloved Son, and our ever-blessed and 
only Redeemer, Jesus Christ, for he is worthy^ 
Vforthyj now and ever. Amen* 

Thus, reader^ thou hast the character of the people 
called Quakers^ in their doctrine, worahipy ministry j 
practice and discipline : compare it with Scripture, 
and primitive example, and we hope thou wilt find, 
that this short discourse hath, in' good measure, 
answered the title of it, viz. : — 

Primitive Christianity Revived, in the prineiplee 
and practice of the people called Quakers. 





<< SoBBB reader, if thou hadst rather we should be 
in the right than in the wrong, and if thou thinkest 
it but a reasonable thing that we should be heard 
before we are condemned, and that our belief ou^t 
to be taken from our own mouths, and not at theirs 
that have prejudged our cause, then we entreat thee 
to read and weigh the following brief account of those 
things that are chiefly received and professed among 
us, the people called Quakers, according to the testi- 
mony of the Scriptures of truth, and the illumination 
of the Holy Ghost, which are the double and agree- 
ing record of true religion. Published to inform the 
moderate inquirer, and reclaim the prejudiced to a 
better temper ; which God grant, to his glory and 
their peace. 

«I. It is our belief that God is, and that he is 
a rewarder of all them that fear him, with eternal 
rewards of happiness ; and that those that fear him 
not, shall be turned into hell. Heb. xi. 16 ; Bev. xxii. 
12 ; Rom. ii. 6-8 ; Ps. ix. 17. 

«II. That there are three that bear record in 
heaven : the Father, the Word, and the Spirit ; and 
these three are really one. 1 John v. 7. 

"III. That the Word was made flesh, and dwelt 
among men, and was and is the only-begotten of the 


APPSNDlt. 87 

ather, full of grace and truth — ^his beloved Son, in 
horn he is well pleased, and whom we are to hear 
all things ; who tasted death for every man, and 
Lied for sin, that we might die to sin, and by his 
^ower and spirit be raised up to newness of life here, 
Umud to glory hereafter. John i. 14 ; Matt. iii. 17 ; 
Beb. ii. 9. 

«< lY. Thajb as we are only justified from the guilt 

:^f sin by Christ, the propitiation, and not by works of 

righteousness that we have done, so there is an abso- 

Late necessity that we receive and obey, to unfeigned 

Repentance and amendment of life, the holy light and 

ispirit of Jesus Chris,t, in order to obtain that remis- 

cdon and justification from sin ; since no man can be 

justified by Christ who walks not after the Spirit, but 

«fber the flesh; for whom he sanctifies, them he also 

justifies. And if we walk in the light as he is light, 

his precious blood cleanseth us from all sin, as well 

from the pollution as guilt of sin. Rom. iii. 22-26; 

chap. viii. 1-4 ; 1 John v. 7. 

"V. That Christ is the great light of the world, 
that lighteth every man that cometh into the world, 
and is full of grace and truth, and giveth to all light 
for light, and grace for grace ; and by his light and 
grace he inwardly appears to man, and teaches such 
as will be taught by him, <that, denying ungodliness 
and worldly lusts, they should live soberly, right- 
eously, and godly in this present world.* John vii. 
12 ; chap, i: 9, 14 ; Tit. ii. 11, 12. 

« YI. That this principle of light and grace, which 
is God's gift, through Christ to man, is that which 
shows us our sins, reproves us for them, and would 
lead all out of them that obey it, to serve God in 
fear and love all their days. And they that turn 

6% APPBNDn:. 

not at tbe reproofs thereof, and will not repent, tnd 
lire and walk according to it, shall die in their sins; 
and where Christ is gone, they shall never come; whe 
is nndefiled and separated from sinners. Eph. t. 18; 
John xvi. 7 ; Proy. i. 20-24 ; John viii. 24. 

"VII. This is that principle by which God pre- 
pares the heart to Worship him aright ; and all the 
duties of religion, as praying, praising, and preach- 
ing, ought to be performed through the sanctifying 
power and assistance of it; other worship being but 
formal and will-worship, with which we cannot in 
conscience join, nor can we maintain or uphold it. 
Rom. viii. 26 ; 1 Pet. iy. 10, 11. 

<<YIII. Worship in this gospel-day, is inward and 
spiritual; for God is a Spirit, as Christ teacheth, and 
he will now be worshipped in spirit and in truth, being^ 
most suitable to his divine nature. Wherefore we 
wait in our assemblies to feel God's Spirit to open and 
move upon our hearts, before we dare offer sacrifice 
to the Lord or preach to others the way of his king- 
dom ; that we may preach in power as well as words, 
and as God promised and Christ ordained, without 
money, and without price. John iv. 23, 24 ; 1 Thess. 
i. 5 ; Isa. Iv. 1 ; Rev. xxii. 17 ; Matt. x. 8. 

<< IX. This also leads us to deny all the vain cus- 
toms and fashions of the world, and to avoid excess 
in all things, that our moderation may be seen of all 
men ; because the Xord is at hand to see and ju^ge 
us according to our deeds. Tit. ii. 12 ; Rom. xii. 2; 
Phil. iv. 5 ; Eccl. xii. 14 ; Matt. xvi. 27 ; Rom. ii. 6 ; 
Rev. XX. 12. 

<< X. We believe the necessity of the one baptism 
of Christ, as well as of his one supper, which he pro- 
mised to eat with those that open the door of their 


hearts to him, being tbe baptism and snpper signified 
by the outward signs; which, though we disuse, we 
judge not those that conscientiously practise them. 
Mmtt, iu. 11; Eph. iy. 1 ; 1 Pet. iu. 21, 22 ; John Yi. ; 
Bey. iii. 20. 

<<XI. We honour goyemment, for we belieye it is 
an ordinance of God ; and that we ought in all things 
to submit, by doing or suffering ; but esteem it a great 
blessing, where the administration is a terror to eyil- 
doers^ and a praise to them that do well. Bom. xiii. 

ii This hath all along been the general stream and 
tendency, both of our ministry and writings, as our 
books will make appear, notwithstanding what ill- 
minded and prejudiced persons may haye strained to 
misrepresent us and our Christian profession. 

« William Pbnn, Thomas Story, 
<<Akthont Sharp, Georob Book.* 

<« Dublin, 8d month, 1698." 

* Penn's Select Works, London ecL 1771. 


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